Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Modern day torture interrogation techniques Modern day torture constitutes an interrogation technique that entails inflicting suffering to the suspect with the aim of obtaining information or a confession. The methods utilized here also include waterboarding, shock treatment and denial of food as well as application of thumbscrews.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Modern day torture interrogation techniques specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Torture therefore ensures that the victim is in extreme anguish with the torturer having total control over the body of the victim (Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy, 2011). The concept that underlies torture has been the subject of debate from various angles. These include moral and utilitarian as well as political perspectives. The controversy has further been fuelled by the increased cases of terrorism around the globe. Groups that argue in favor of torture have their support based on the fact that torture involves infli cting pain on a defenseless person. These have seen to the formation of policies such as the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy, 2011). This was adopted by the United Nations in 1984. In addition, the arguments are consequential in nature. This implies that the issues raised are directed at the impact of failing to use torture in interrogation of suspects of terrorism. These include suspects that may hold information that is vital to intelligence officials such as planned attacks (Casebeer, n.d). On the other hand, arguments in favour of torture, are grounded on the fact that it becomes a case of human rights violation. This is especially the case when the information witheld is inconsequential. Arguments in favour The ticking bomb scenario presents one of the major instances that are argued to justify the use of torture as an interrogation technique. In this case, it is considered ethical to inflict pain when psychological suffering fails to bring a suspect to a confession on the location of a ticking time bomb. For example, if a timed explosive device is planted in London and the police have the suspect (Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy, 2011). The scenario further emphasizes that it is ethical to subject one person to torture in order to save thousands others. In addition, the argument that torture can be converted into a habit that may become entrenched into the justice system is heavily overwhelmed (Vaknin, 2007). This is due to the fact that other interrogation techniques have been noted to be equally misused. For instance, the use of guns and knives are equally susceptible to similar levels of abuse. Torture is also ethical in that it constitutes an ordinary method interrogation rather than a punishment to suspects. It should instead be regarded as an ordinary procedure used before trial in the same level with detention and oral interrogation.Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is due to the fact that other interrogation techniques are also bound to inflict equal levels of punishment to a suspect before they are cleared of any wrong doing. This contravenes the argument put forward by St Augustine on basis of the negative moral impact of torture. To add to that, the use of torture facilitates the administration of justice as criminals have been observed to deny committing the crimes. It thus aids in finding the crime perpetrators and serving justice to their victims. From another perspective, torture is arguably justified by the fact that in times of war and instances of terrorism collateral damage is likely to occur. This refers to the sacrifice of the lives of a few people to save a country or many other lives. This implies that to maintain justice, governments and society have the right to expose suspects to torture for the greater good (Harris, 2005). For example, using torture to interrogate a terrorist group leader like Osama Bin Laden so as to salvage the lives of many innocents would be considered morally right. In recent times, it has additionally been noted that abstinence from torture by many countries is done because it constitutes being politically correct. This means that most governments have adopted the anti-torture policies at the expense of their citizens. The governments are limited in terms of law enforcement capacity so as to obtain foreign aid or military backing from other nations. Additionally, such measures are a disadvantage in times of instability or war that threaten the livelihood of the innocent. In such cases, it is only right to use torture from the moral or ethical and formal as well as utilitarian perspectives. Arguments against On the other side, torture has been heavily opposed by various interest groups on different grounds. The moral perspective for instance, views the practice as a violation. This is due to the fact that the victim is denied the right to act on their own rationale. Additionally, it lowers the moral level of the suspect under interrogation. According to Henry Shue, torture should be disallowed as it is not justified by the simple wrong or right standards. This implies that the act should not be judged by the amount of good or evil that it brings forth (Ghraib, 2004). He adds that it is wrong to use torture as the torturer has no way of verifying that the suspect has the information that they need.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Modern day torture interrogation techniques specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another perspective argues against the ticking bomb scenario. It emphasizes that in some instances, intelligence personnel may capture suspects that turn out to be innocent. Further, the concept behind the ticking bomb scenario works under the premises t hat result in intellectual fraud. From a liberal point of view, the event is created as an emergency so that inhumane treatment is justified. The liberal perspective argues that torture denies the suspect their rights (Luban, 2005). Torture is regarded as an act that aims at obtaining a confession, punishing and terrifying the suspect while deriving pleasure at the practice. Moreover, it is difficult to verify the information given by a suspect under such conditions. For example, the suspect may give false information to stop the pain. The use of torture interrogation techniques has also been noted to dilute the strength of international laws and policies. For instance, disregard for international law has been associated with increased use of torture on prisoners of America and other countries. Furthermore, civilization asserts that nations adhere to amicable ways of obtaining intelligence. Torture is additionally opposed on grounds that other interrogation techniques can be used in stead. Interrogation may opt to use other techniques such as verbal confrontation or psychological control methods that afflict less or no pain. Further research also indicates that torture lacks in terms of efficiency as a modern interrogation technique. It has been noted that the information obtained under such circumstances may be misleading or wrong. In the long-term, the inclusion of torture in systems such as justice would result in greater costs rather than benefits. For instance, it undermines the value of evidence so that information obtained may be inconsequential in a court of law. The integration of torture interrogation techniques into the systems of rule has also been linked to other inefficiencies. These may affect institutions such as the military or judiciary as they rely on the initial moral of rationale (Arrigo, 2004). It is apparent that modern day torture interrogation techniques are comprise an infringement of the rights of the person under interrogation. It un dermines the moral level of the suspect. It has also been noted to be inefficient despite the pain subjected to the culprits. Moreover, the practice of torture has been found to contravene international law and morality. Therefore, torture interrogation techniques should only be applied in extreme cases whereby there is a degree of confidence that the suspect is the culprit. References Arrigo, J. M. (2004). A Consequentialist Arguement againist Torture Interrogation of Terrorist. Web.Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Casebeer, W. (n.d). Torture Interrogatiom of Terrorist: ATheory Of Exceptions(With Notes, Cautions and Warnings). Web. Ghraib, A. (2004). The Politics of Torture. Atlanta: North Atlantic Books. Harris, S. (2005, October 17). In Defense of Torture. The Huffington Post . Luban, D. (2005). Liberalism, Torture and Ticking Timebomb. Web. Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy. (2011, April). Torture. Web. Vaknin, S. (2007). Malignant Self-love: Narcissism Revisited. New York.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
How I'd vote on drilling for oil in our national park system ( against drilling) - Essay Example From this perspective, there is need to conserve the environment since it has sustained long-term benefits to the society. It is indisputable that the environment has had positive economic contribution to the economy. By sustaining the environment, the government benefits from tourism, which is a major economic contributor (Cato, 2011). Besides, the government can exploit natural resources from the environment, which will contribute to employment and foreign income (Dupler, 2006). Therefore, it remains a dilemma whether the government should focus on environmental conservation or economic development that has short-term drawbacks. When such a situation arises, there is need to conserve the environment as it has long-term benefits rather than exploit the land, which would have short-lived benefits. In situations where there are natural resources within a national park system, such as in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in North East Alaska, there arises the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of either course of action. First, given the increasing cost of oil, exploiting the reservoir will attract high income from exporting oil besides providing employment (ORourke & Sarah, 2003). However, income from tourism, however small, will be lost and the land may be destroyed permanently. Others cost will include soil and air pollution, which have long-term impacts on land and the environment. Besides, on depletion of the non-renewable oil resource, the land will be left to waste (Wiese et al., 2001). From this viewpoint, drilling oil will have long-term costs on the environment and hence this project should be shunned to protect the environment. In conclusion, the government should refrain from drilling oil from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in North East Alaska. While drilling oil will give the country an economic boost and provide employment, it will lead to
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Literature review Example The management as well as the juniors or subordinates look up to the mangers as leaders. Managers are not only expected to perform their tasks but are also expected to make sure that the subordinates are carrying out their tasks efficiently. Although there has been much debate about difference between a leader and a manager, it goes without saying that a good manger has to be a good leader. One of the critical aspects of the responsibilities of a manger is to come up with results within the stipulated time. This study therefore will focus on the key traits or qualities of the manger, putting special emphasis on the time management skills. Qualities of a good manager Personal Characteristics Self Motivation: A good manager cannot motivate him/herself, if the manager him/herself is not self-motivated. Many believe that to be a good manager, one has to learn to gain the workers trust. People trust a good manager as he/she may have personal integrity. A good manager should be seen as rel iable both by the superiors and subordinates. Confidence is the key. A good manager should have confidence in him. This is reflected while making decisions. Also, a confident manager is likely to show confidence in his team also. A manager has to stay strong under the pressure. If a manager is vulnerable to pressure, then the whole team is likely to crumble. Over all, a manager should be a good leader. Managers quite often need to play the role of a mediator. Sometimes a manager may have to play the role of a fire-fighter. It could be to solve a conflict between workers, between workers and employers, and between workers and customers. A manager may be the leader of a pack. But he/she is very much a part of the team. Therefore, a manager must be a very good team member and should have respect for others. Finally, a manger has to communicate and coordinate not only with own team but also with other departments also (Armstrong, 2011, p.15). Business Characteristics A manager should ha ve thorough knowledge about the respective industry. The manager is also supposed to pass the knowledge to the other team members. A good manager should know that some of the tasks may need to be delegated. One should be able to recognize the right person for the right job. A good manager should have the knowledge of business hierarchy and follow the required chain of command. A good manger may not need to be an expert in law, but one should have the basic notion of business or corporate law. Communication Skills One of the major qualities of a manger is the ability to communicate effectively. One should know how to communicate in writing. A good manager should have the ability to write professionally and with correct grammar as one has to write memos, e-mails, minutes of the meeting quite effectively. A good manager should have excellent verbal communication ability. Managers are required to conduct training sessions as well provide presentations; hence, verbal communication is as important as written communication. One of the most important communication skills, if not the most important, is listening. A manger should have good listening skills as he has to listen to the superiors, worker and the customers also (Kotler, 2011, p.73). Time Management Skills for a successful manager According to
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Morrie - Essay Example to always be able to look at death itself straight in the eye and fight back no matter how hopeless the situation can be and then be on the positive side of things, to look at the future in an optimistic way.The professors future looked short as he has only a few months left to live but he managed to touch everyone around him, from family, relatives, peers, colleagues, and even complete strangers who saw his interview with Ted Koppel when it was shown on television. This paper discusses the important things in life worth knowing about to be happy on earth, in particular, how to live life fully by learning how to die gracefully. Despite being diagnosed with ALS with a very bad prognosis, Morrie Schwartz, the old and sickly professor mentioned earlier, was fiercely determined to live a useful life. He is of the belief that dying people need not be entirely useless; instead he encouraged all people who knew him to come and visit him if they had the time and the inclination so he could still be available to listen to their problems and perhaps give them a piece of useful advice. Morrie Schwartz was indeed a wonderful listener who can help other people because he had empathy and understanding; by letting them unload their problems to him, he would willingly listen despite his pains from the ailment. He was fond of aphorisms, of which the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"once you learn how to die, you learn how to live,Ã¢â¬ he said (Albom 82) had a very profound meaning for everyone who will listen. What he had meant with this statement is that people looking at impending death realize how precious life and valuable is, tha t these people suddenly realize the importance of the idea of living life to the fullest which means enjoy life without any hesitations or reservations about what other people may think and not waste a minute of it on trivial things that do not really matter in the grand sweep of life. In other words, most people go through life as if sleep-walking, doing things
Friday, November 15, 2019
Corporate Governance UK USA A statutory response to Corporate Governance: A Critique Compare and contrast UK and USA responses to Corporate Governance Introduction My dissertation will focus on the examination and the comparison of the corporate governance practices followed in UK and USA. The extensive reforms that have taken place in the particular sector have led to the development of many doubts regarding the effectiveness and the credibility of the corporate governance systems applied on these two countries. For this reason, the examination of the particular issue is considered to be really valuable offering to researchers and managers around the world the chance to understand the various aspects of corporate governance and align (where possible) their business strategies with the relevant corporate governance principles applied on each specific market (referring to the cases of UK and USA). Moreover, this study could help to the identification of any potential weaknesses of the corporate governance policies applied on UK and USA suggesting appropriate reforms on the relevant rules. Background: Business activities around the world have often caused the interest of governments within the particular states. The reason is that all parts of these activities need to be appropriately regulated in order to offer adequate and effective protection to the stakeholders and the public in general (referring mostly to protection from severe financial losses that can threat the viability of the company but even the level of the development of the local economy Ã¢â¬â when the firm under examination is a well established one, eg Enron). However, because there are many differences in corporate structure internationally, it is necessary for legislators to each specific state to try to adapt the legal principles that are related with business activity with the social and cultural characteristics of each particular state; the size of the firm and its culture should be also taken into consideration. The particular issue was examined by Douglas et al. (1989, 440) who noticed that Ã¢â¬Ëdiffer ences in environmental conditions in different country markets, in terms, for example, of market size and growth, rate of technological change, or barriers to entry, may also lead to differences in strategyÃ¢â¬â¢. In other words, corporate activity is a complex network of actions and initiatives that need a careful review and close monitoring by the governmental authorities in order to ensure the safety of the transactions without influencing the development of the various corporate projects. As noticed above, the dissertation will focus on the examination of a specific aspect of corporate activity: the corporate governance. The latter can refer to a series of elements within a particular organisation starting from the principles that should be applied to the governance of a firm up to the relationships between the employer (board of directors) and the employees. On the other hand, globally two major corporate governance systems are recognised: the liberal form of corporate governance (UK and USA) in which the interests of shareholders are considered to be the major priority for legislators when developing laws related with business activities. In accordance with the coordinative model (accepted mostly by Europe and Japan) the interests of other participants (in the corporate activities) like employees, customers and suppliers are considered to have a crucial role in the formulation of the laws regulating business activities. This study will refer primarily to the corpora te governance schemes applied in UK and USA. For this reason, the corporate governance system of these two countries will be analytically presented highlighting the potential differences and also the advantages of each one of them within the modern market. From another point of view, the examination of the various aspects of corporate governance cannot be achieved without the analytical presentation of the characteristics of corporate governance through an appropriately customised definition. In this context, it is stated by Buck et al. (2005, 42) that Ã¢â¬Ëcorporate governance and governance institutions in general terms are concerned with the means by which a firms stakeholders control the decisions of senior managers; these stakeholders can include shareholders, executive directors, employees who are not executives, customers, creditors, suppliers (including banks as suppliers of credit), competitors, and the StateÃ¢â¬â¢. From another point of view, Pedersen (1999, 45) supported that Ã¢â¬Ëcorporate governance the mechanisms by which companies are controlled and directed is a complex subject that consists of owner-manager relations, stakeholder relations, board structures and practices, management compensation, capital struct ure, company law, and other variablesÃ¢â¬â¢. Both the above definitions present the particular aspects of corporate governance within the modern market; no differentiation in corporate structure seems to be made in accordance with the principles of the state of activity (or the state of origin). On the other hand, the study of Fort (2000, 829) led to the conclusion that Ã¢â¬Ëcorporate governance can be described as the top management process that manages and mediates value creation for, and value transference among, various corporate claimants in a context that ensures accountability to these claimantsÃ¢â¬â¢. In accordance with the above definition the development of the various aspects of corporate activities is decided by the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s managers; the intervention of the state is rather limited. Indeed, the increase of the power of top management in modern businesses around the world is also highlighted by the literature and the empirical research. In a relevant report it is noticed that Ã¢â¬Ëthe principal weakness of corporate governance today is the excessive concentration of power in the hands of top management; rebalancing or equalising this power is a prerequisite for controlling management fraud and promoting accurate financial reportingÃ¢â¬â¢ (CPA Journal, 2008). The above described concentration of power can have severe consequences for both the stakeholders and the public in general. In the case of Enron the concentration of power in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s top managers led to the unexpected collapse of the firm and the development of severe turbulences in American economy. Literature Review Corporate governance Ã¢â¬â general aspects Firms that operate within the modern market have to face a series of challenges related with both their internal and external environment. In this context, it is supported by Wooldridge et al. (2001, 17) that Ã¢â¬Ëthe main challenge for companies in a global economy is to situate themselves in various centers of excellence and weave together different centers of excellence into a global production networkÃ¢â¬â¢. From a different point of view, Gooderham et al. (1999, 507) noticed that Ã¢â¬Ëdespite their very different assumptions, both rational and institutional explanations of organizational structure and management practices predict similarity among firms that operate in the same industry within the context of a simple countryÃ¢â¬â¢. In other words, the regulation of business activities today can be effective only if it takes into consideration the various aspects of these activities as they are formulated within the modern market Ã¢â¬â taking always into consideration t he changes in the needs of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s shareholders but also in the needs of the stakeholders. On the other hand, it is clear that extensive differentiations can be observed in the methods of corporate governance applied to modern firms in accordance with the social and cultural characteristics of these firms but also the social and cultural context of the country in which the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ operations are based. The theoretical and empirical research has proved that significant differences can be observed in all aspects of business activities in accordance with the social and cultural characteristics of a specific region Ã¢â¬â where business activities are mainly developed. The differences mentioned above can refer to specific management issues or they can refer to all business context. In the case of British firms, Scullion (1994, 86) noticed that Ã¢â¬Ëvery few British companies can claim to have a truly international top management teamÃ¢â¬â¢. Other issues of corporate activity may be differentiated under the influence of the social and cultural trends applied on a specific country/ region. In order to understand the importance of corporate governance for the development of the business activities, we should refer primarily to a clear description of the interests existed within any corporation: the stakeholders from one side and the shareholders from the other. Regarding this issue, it is noticed that Ã¢â¬Ëstakeholders, broadly defined as society as a whole, are interested in the collateral benefits derived from the success of the enterprise, such as the abundance of a product or a service, a clean environment, or a general rise in the standard of living; stockholders have a dual interest in the success of the enterprise: direct interest as a reward for their investment, and collateral benefit as stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ (CPA Journal, 2008). The conflict of interests of these two sides can lead to the development of severe turbulences within the organization. On the other hand, in firms that the interests of both these sides are protected it is very likely that there will be no severe problems in the communication and the cooperation between these parties towards the increase of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. It should be noticed that the principles of corporate governance are primarily stated by the governmental authorities (referring to the firms of a particular country). Apart from these orders, the international community can intervene in the business activities presenting a series of standards that should be met in the corporate activities worldwide. OECD is a well known international organization that provides appropriate solutions to a series of issues related with international business activities. The specific organization has set several rules regarding the various aspects of corporate governance. In accordance with these rules: Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢all shareholders should be treated equally; insider trading and abusive-self dealing should be prohibited; capital structures and arrangements that enable certain shareholders to obtain a degree of control disproportionate to their equity ownership should be disclosedÃ¢â¬â¢ (OECD, 2004, 18-19). It is clear from the above rules that inter national organizations can set rules regarding business activities around the world; however these rules can be characterized rather as Ã¢â¬ËprinciplesÃ¢â¬â¢ of commerce being similar with the ethics held in corporate activities worldwide. Corporate governance in Britain In the case of Britain, the regulation of business activities is realized through the application of a series of legislative texts and orders. The history of business activity in the particular country was examined by Pedersen (1999, 45) who noticed that Ã¢â¬Ëthe industrial revolution took its beginning in the United Kingdom more than 250 years ago; therefore, the hypothesis of greater differentiation in the early industrialized nations than in later industrialized nations can be tested by examining the extent to which the corporate governance structures of U.K. firms are more or less similar to the governance structures of firms in other nationsÃ¢â¬â¢. In other words, Britain is a country with a significant history in business activities. The importance of the latter in the economy should be considered as extremely high. For this reason the legislator pays a significant attention to the development of the appropriate legal framework for the regulation of the various aspects of c orporate governance. The above assumption is in accordance with the view of Kay (1995, 84) who supported that Ã¢â¬ËBritish statute law is virtually silent on how corporations are to be organised; since the corporation is regarded as a creation of private contract, obligations on companies are mainly there to prevent abuse of the privilege of limited liability, and concern formal matters such as registration and auditÃ¢â¬â¢. Because of the above phenomenon, additional legislative texts (as described below) have been introduced and applied in order to support the effective regulation of all corporate governance in British firms (foreign firms that operate in Britain may have the right to claim the application of the laws of their country of origin Ã¢â¬â it depends on the law applicable on each case taking into account the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s articles of association but also the legislation of the country of origin and the country of operations). However, it could be noticed that the British statute law recognizes to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders (board of directors) the right to decide on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate governance. The legal framework applied in UK regarding the corporate governance includes a variety of legislative texts: Ã¢â¬ËCommon law rules (e.g. directors fiduciary duties). Statute (notably the Companies Act 1985). A companys constitutional documents (the memorandum and articles of association). The Listing Rules, which apply to all companies that are listed on the Official List (or AIM Rules, as appropriate). The Combined Code on Corporate Governance; the Code is supplemented by: the Turnbull Guidance (relating to the internal control requirements of the Code), the Smith Guidance (on audit committees and auditors) and suggestions of good practice from the Higgs Review. Non-legal guidelines issued by bodies that represent institutional investors (such as the Association of British Insurers (ABI), the National Association of Pension Funds (NAPF) and the Pensions Investment Research Consultants (PIRC). In the context of takeovers of public companies, the City Code on Takeovers and Mergers and the rules of the Takeover Panel apply. The Financial Services Authoritys Code of Market Conduct (relating to the disclosure and use of confidential and price sensitive information and the creation of a false market)Ã¢â¬â¢ (Metropolitan Corporate Cousel, 2008) In other words, corporate governance in Britain is regulated by a series of legal texts the most important of which is the Combined Code on Corporate Governance as described above. The specific Code includes provisions that refer to all particular aspects of corporate governance of firms operating in Britain; however because in some cases additional provisions may be required (like in the case of a merger) it is possible that other legislative texts are used in order for the relevant issues to be appropriately addressed. In any case the common law rules and the Companies Act of 1985 are applied (the former are rules that can be applied in any dispute Ã¢â¬â whenever necessary Ã¢â¬â whether the latter can be applied in any issue related with the business activity Ã¢â¬â i.e. not only to the corporate governance). Corporate governance in USA On the other hand, in USA there is no Code for the regulation specifically of the corporate governance issues; instead a series of laws and courtsÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions can be used in order to resolve problems that are related with the corporate governance of firms operating across the country. There are certain issues that are regulated directly by the law but these are limited; in the high majority of the disputes appeared in the area of firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ corporate governance various statutes and other legislative texts can be applied. In accordance with a report published recently in USA Ã¢â¬Ëcorporate governance practices in the United States are not regulated by any one particular statute but instead are affected by the governing instruments, the corporate law and the court decisions of each issuerÃ¢â¬â¢s state of incorporation, and, in the case of many publicly-owned issuers, by the U.S. federal securities laws and requirements of the national securities markets (Security and Excha nge Commission of Brazil, 2008). On the other hand, it should be noticed that corporate governance issues are likely to be regulated differently by each one of the 50 states of USA. In this context, the Sarbanes-Oxley law which was introduced in 2002 has been formulated in order to offer a valuable legislative base for the regulation of various issues referring to the corporate governance of firms across USA. The above is considered to have influenced also the UK legislation related with the corporate governance. Regarding the specific legislative text it is noticed by Tran (2004) that Ã¢â¬ËSarbanes-Oxley, which called for tighter internal company controls, caused a rethink of Ã corporate governance laws in the UK as well, with the publication of the Higgs report, written by Derek Higgs, the former investment bankerÃ¢â¬â¢. The effectiveness of Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 has been extensively criticized. In accordance with Atkins (commissioner in United States Securities and Exchan ge Commission, 2003) the specific legislative text Ã¢â¬Ëcontains many advances for corporate governance and attempts to provide best practices to prevent the misdeeds that have led to the investor losses. Many of these ideas are not new, but have been floating around in one form or another for quite a number of yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Atkins, 2003). In other words, Sarbanes-Oxley Act has been introduced in order to resolve specific problems in corporate governance for firms operating in USA; in the long term the achievement of this target can be doubted and only the examination of the consequences of application of this Act in practice could lead to a Ã¢â¬ËsafeÃ¢â¬â¢ assumption regarding the particular issue. It is for this reason that the incorporation of the empirical research (questionnaire) in current study has been considered as necessary. Research question and objectives In accordance with the issues developed above, current study will focus on the regulation of corporate governance in two specific countries: UK and USA. Because the particular issues can include a variety of aspects, it is necessary for the relevant research to be expanded to the following questions: a) which is the current trends in corporate governance around the world, b) which are the major differences between the corporate governance practices followed by the Anglo-American countries and the countries of continental Europe/ Japan, c) which are the benefits and the pitfalls of the statutes and the other legislative texts applied on UK and USA regarding the corporate governance d) which are the most common problems related with the corporate governance in these two countries. References Atkins, P. (2003) Recent Experience With Corporate Governance in the USA, online, available at http://www.sec.gov/news/speech/spch062603psa.htm Buck, T., Shahrim, A. (2005) The Translation of Corporate Governance Changes across National Cultures: The Case of Germany. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(1): 42-69 CPA Journal (2008) A Comprehensive Structure of Corporate Governance in Post-Enron Corporate America http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2004/1204/essentials/p46.htm Fort, T., Schipani, C. (2000) Corporate Governance in a Global Environment: The Search for the Best of All Worlds. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 33(4): 829-859 Kim, H. (1995) Markets, Financial Institutions, and Corporate Governance: Perspectives from Germany. Law and Policy in International Business, 26(2): 371-405 OECD Principles of Corporate Governance (2004), available at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/32/18/31557724.pdf Pedersen, T., Thomsen, S. (1999) Business Systems and Corporate Governance. International Studies of Management Organization, 29(2): 43-54 Scullion, H., (1994) Ã¢â¬ËStaffing policies and strategic control in British multinationalsÃ¢â¬â¢, International Studies of Management and Organization, 24(3): 86-97 Security and Exchange Commission of Brazil (2008) available at http://www.cvm.gov.br/ingl/inter/cosra/corpgov/usa-e.asp Tran, M. (2004) USA: Corporate Governance Law Too Strict available at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=11374 Metropolitan Corporate Counsel (2008) Corporate Governance In The UK And U.S. Comparison http://www.metrocorpcounsel.com/current.php?artType=viewartMonth=DecemberartYear=2005EntryNo=3957
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The conquests of Alexander the Great and the significance of those conquests in establishing the supremacy of western thought. Alexander the Great started his military career on such a stellar note in 340 BC at the young age of 16. His father, Philip II was on a campaign in the east against Byzantium, having left Alexander in charge of Macedonia and during this time, a rebellious tribe attacked but was crushed by the troops led by Alexander. His efforts were lauded, he was rewarded by founding the first town of many to bear a version of his name and with Alexandropoulos, his military adventures began gloriously. During his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s next campaign, Alexander leads the cavalry charge against a combined threat and strengthens his stance as a military leader. With Philip IIÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 336 BC, Alexander sought approval of the army generals for the kingship, the generals agreed and Alexander was proclaimed king and ruler of Macedonia. To ensure his initial days as leader were uninterrupted he killed all other competition. 334 BC Alexander has demonstrated his ruthless actions are...
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Madeleine Calhoun First Year Seminar Professor Scheible 11/24/12 The Existence of Pathos in DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno The strength of emotions drives many unjustifiable actions of humanity. The human race is subjected to feelings of pity and compassion. Yet, when did we obtain these potentially harmful yet also helpful feelings? Why do we have these uncontrollable emotions? And what can these feelings possibly contribute to an individual, or a society? There is much contemplation about the roles that pity and co.uk/on-compassion-summary-and-response/">compassion, as well as other feelings play into life.Emotions are the basis of all interaction and relationship; they enable a certain level of trust throughout literature, which can also perceptibly be applicable in everyday existence. DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno, is an epic piece of literature that contains exemplary instances of the use of pity and compassion. Pity is the ability to sympathize for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, being able to look d own with reason and an equal understanding. Compassion is affection, and care that is distributed and usually reciprocated in a relationship.These emotions are used to create a foundation relationship and a basis of trust throughout the text between the characters, and the reader. These most basic human emotions, pity and compassion, are fundamental to a true human experience. They build a level of trust between Dante, the writer, and his reader. A necessity in all of literature is to establish a balance of trust between the narrator and the reader. Without this relationship, the reader will become disinterested, and it will be more difficult for him or her to make the vital connections with the characters.Just as Calhoun 2 Virgil guides Dante through hell; the poet guides the reader through the work of literature. According to Professor Joseph Luzzi at Bard College, Dante addressed the reader 20 times throughout the poem (Poetry and Knowledge in Inferno: DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s World Wide W eb). This aids in the establishment of participation, and creates a more intimate and interactive relationship with the reader. The ability to have a protagonist with these human feelings of compassion develops a more believable plotline and affirms the easily accessible bond with the reader.Dante accomplished this by creating a relatable main character, himself, who feels the same average emotions as every natural human. Should we pity those in hell? This question rattles the minds of those who read DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno. In this vernacular poem Dante is both the author and the main character. He is taking a journey through hell guided by Virgil. Many have no idea why Dante wants to visit hell. However, many infer that Dante used this book as a form of revenge for the society of Florence, from which he was exiled in 1301.Also, he used this book as an attempt to exert more superiority over his enemies. Along the way, Dante emphasizes on all of the terrible sights of disfigured sinn ers, and giant monsters. His wild and imaginative tour taught him the full understanding of sin, and the consequences of these acts of wrongdoing. Dante experiences pity and compassion many times throughout the text. He pities the many sinners who have been placed in hell, and his friendship with Virgil aids his travels. These indisputable emotions both helped and hindered him during his time in hell.Hell itself is an intimidating, unknown, and violent place. All of those who sin and die on earth are welcomed by the devil to hell. The architecture of hell is not Calhoun 3 designed to promote pity and compassion. Dante learns through his excursion that pity is not the appropriate response to the sinners. All of the sinners are aware of their situation; they have chosen their sin and hell is the consequence for their actions. Those in hell do not need to feel emotions for each other, because they are all in the same position, and their conditions have no permanent means to improve.The re is no place in the typical hell for compassion. This negatively affects Dante because he is a naturally merciful human, which may explain why he is merely visiting hell, and not a permanent member of the community. Dante came upon this realization the hard way because many times in hell he was admonishes for showing empathy. When the citizens of hell noticed DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s common affiliation with these emotions they viewed him as weak. This concept reinforces that Dante was placed at a disadvantage in this moment in hell. In this situation, Dante saw one of his loves, Francesca.This romantic event obviously stirred him with both compassion and pity. Ã¢â¬Å"So that for pity I swooned as if in death. And down I fell as a dead body fallsÃ¢â¬ (Dante V. 140-142). DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s implicit human instinct drove his emotions towards mercy for his poor lover. His previous mode of affection towards Francesca was no longer welcomed, and he now sympathized for his woman, and the preceding l ust that they shared. These feelings should prove Dante a sincere mortal, are inhibit him in this situation. By comparing himself to a falling dead body, this may further be setting him on a similar Calhoun 4 omparative ground as those in hell. Dante may not realize how much hell is having an internal affect on him. This quote also displays DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to feel compassion for others, and he is instantly vulnerable to the maniacal tendencies of the sinners. He needs the compassion, and reassurance that he will not join the sinners in this cold alternate world. It is inevitable to recognize that fact that because Dante pities those in hell, his own position of morality should be questioned. In order to pity the sinners, would you have to understand them?Or, at the least, be able to reason with their sins? Possibly it is merely the violent darkness, and impending deathly gloom that impulsively convinces Dante that these sinners are in need of condolence. He struggles with th ese pities, for it is difficult to have any sort of involvement with this society of hell. DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s strong sense of moral indignation makes it difficult for him to see the truth behind sin. However, it is these realizations that convince him that he belongs, or hopes to belong in heaven, instead of hell.Perhaps the answer for those sinners in hell is that they do not posses this widely acknowledged, and ordinarily accepted trait of compassion. After all, in the modern day basic relationships and families are built off of the trust that is ensured by a certain degree of compassion. The ability to pity shows an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mental capacity of care. IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t Dante just being a nice guy by feeling bad for those burning in hell? Pity and compassion may occasionally hinder DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s chances and position in hell; however, without these vital emotions, Dante would not have made it through alive.Dante admits it for himself in Canto II, that the compassion he is given pr ovides him with the strength, Calhoun 5 and power, to continue on with his travel through hell. Here, compassion is a positive emotion because it provides companionship, and allows for understanding. In this situation, Dante exudes his fear of hell. Beatrice, his other lover, and Virgil both console him, and show him the necessary compassion to inspire him to continue his journey. Ã¢â¬Å"Such in my failing strength, did I become. And so much courage poured into my heartÃ¢â¬ ¦ Your words have made my heart So eager for the journeyÃ¢â¬ Dante II. 130-131, 136-137). Here pity and compassion serve as a motivation, and help Dante develop throughout his sojourn in hell. He uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"eagerÃ¢â¬ to display how much a small act of compassion can almost rejuvenate Dante of fear. This quote explicitly displays the positive effects of empathy. Dante learns that when controlled, these emotions can show who the true sinners are. These relationships with others prove to Dante that he is not as alone as he primarily stated in the beginning of the canto. These extrapolations from the text can show that pity is transmittable, and malleable.The feelings may come and go, yet they arrive at a convenient time for DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s incentive to proceed. DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Virgil is the epitome of an example of compassion as a contagion. Virgil is not originally accustomed to being around these emotions, and he quickly learns that for this journey, as well as most others in life, pity and compassion are necessary. When Virgil notices DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s merciful nature, he first admonishes him for these feelings, but by the end, Virgil is taking part in the sequence of empathy. Calhoun 6 Ã¢â¬Å"He looked with care upon the ruin, Took though, chose a plan of action,Then opened out his arms and took me in themÃ¢â¬ (Dante XXIV. 22-24). In this situation, Virgil was taking Dante through bridges, and climbing up cliffs. These are dangerous tasks in hell, and Virgi l recognized this, then quickly after involuntarily reaches to embrace Dante, satisfying his need for compassion. Primarily in the plot Virgil is only DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher; however, by the end of the poem, Virgil serves as more of a paternal or lord-like figure. He sees Dante as an equal for enduring the difficult circumstances of hell, and developing a thickness against the sinners.Any form of compassion that Dante receives from Virgil mitigates his negative experiences, and establishes a necessary basis of trust between the two. This relationship pushes them both further on their journey, because they know that they are not alone. Dante learns from his acquaintances with pity that not everyone deserves it, and as the plot progresses, Dante develops a sort of strength, and begins to have immunity against the sore sights in hell. This illustrates that pity and compassion have positive potential to help an individual, and can shift depending on the affects or consequences of the em otion.Opposing the internal pities that Dante holds in the text, he also cannot help but pity himself. Perhaps, this may be a reflection or effect from the compassion that he sees being given to others. The theory that Dante pities himself as well as the sinners could prove to be one of DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s mental rationalizations for the creation of Inferno. His Calhoun 7 experiences with these feelings exhibit the circuitous cycle of pity and compassion. First, Dante pities himself for being exiled; his solution then is to write the Inferno. His pity then shifts to the sinners in hell, and for this he eventually receives compassion from Virgil.In the end, Dante reached a stage of revenge in which pity had been alienated. This cycle of pity takes control of Dante, and puts him in an inferior position to the others in hell, or to his fellow writers on earth. Dante sympathizes for himself because ultimately it is him who understands his own feelings of remorse from being exiled from his ho me. This proof of pity places Dante at an even more comparable human level, because the average individual in humanity finds it easy to take pity on themselves. If Dante had not been exiledÃ¢â¬ ¦ would he have put all of his enemies in hell?Would Inferno have even been written in the first place? Pity and compassion are necessary emotions in Inferno, as well as in actual existence. Understanding this pathos of Dante and his relationships with Virgil shows the reader the extent to which pity and compassion can affect an individual. These overcoming feelings are natural, and they can both help and hinder depending on the situation. They should not be held back because they teach the essentials of truth and trust, and good and evil. The relationships developed from compassion assist us everyday, without them the human race would be alone.If it were not for the pity that Dante had for others, and himself, we would have not been exposed to the necessary connections towards developing th e Inferno. However, the larger question that should be considered isÃ¢â¬ ¦ where would human existence be without these emotions of pity and compassion? Calhoun 8 Works Cited Dante, Alighieri, Robert Hollander, and Jean Hollander. Inferno. New York: Doubleday, 2000. Print. Luzzi, Joseph. Ã¢â¬Å"Poetry & Knowledge in Inferno: Dante's World Wide Web. Ã¢â¬ Dante Inferno Symposium. Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson. Oct. -Nov. 2012. Lecture.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Overview of the Branches of Chemistry There are several branches of chemistry. Here is a list of the main branches of chemistry, with an overview of what each branch of chemistry studies. Types of Chemistry Agrochemistry - This branch of chemistry may also be called agricultural chemistry. It deals with the application of chemistry for agricultural production, food processing, and environmental remediation as a result of agriculture. Analytical Chemistry - Analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry involved with studying the properties of materials or developing tools to analyze materials. Astrochemistry - Astrochemistry is the study of the composition and reactions of the chemical elements and molecules found in the stars and in space and of the interactions between this matter and radiation. Biochemistry - Biochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical reactions that occur inside living organisms. Chemical Engineering - Chemical engineering involves the practical application of chemistry to solve problems. Chemistry History - Chemistry history is the branch of chemistry and history that traces the evolution over time of chemistry as a science. To some extent, alchemy is included as a topic of chemistry history. Cluster Chemistry - This branch of chemistry involves the study of clusters of bound atoms, intermediate in size between single molecules and bulk solids. Combinatorial Chemistry - Combinatorial chemistry involves computer simulation of molecules and reactions between molecules. Electrochemistry - Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry that involves the study of chemical reactions in a solution at the interface between an ionic conductor and an electrical conductor. Electrochemistry may be considered to be the study of electron transfer, particularly within an electrolytic solution. Environmental Chemistry - Environmental chemistry is the chemistry associated with soil, air, and water and of human impact on natural systems. Food Chemistry - Food chemistry is the branch of chemistry associated with the chemical processes of all aspects of food. Many aspects of food chemistry rely on biochemistry, but it incorporates other disciplines as well. General Chemistry - General chemistry examines the structure of matter and the reaction between matter and energy. It is the basis for the other branches of chemistry. Geochemistry - Geochemistry is the study of chemical composition and chemical processes associated with the Earth and other planets. Green Chemistry - Green chemistry is concerned with processes and products that eliminate or reduce the use or release of hazardous substances. Remediation may be considered part of green chemistry. Inorganic Chemistry - Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the structure and interactions between inorganic compounds, which are any compounds that arent based in carbon-hydrogen bonds. Kinetics - Kinetics examines the rate at which chemical reactions occur and the factors that affect the rate of chemical processes. Medicinal Chemistry - Medicinal chemistry is chemistry as it applies to pharmacology and medicine. Nanochemistry - Nanochemistry is concerned with the assembly and properties of nanoscale assemblies of atoms or molecules. Nuclear Chemistry - Nuclear chemistry is the branch of chemistry associated with nuclear reactions and isotopes. Organic Chemistry - This branch of chemistry deals with the chemistry of carbon and living things. Photochemistry - Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with interactions between light and matter. Physical Chemistry - Physical chemistry is the branch of chemistry that applies physics to the study of chemistry. Quantum mechanics and thermodynamics are examples of physical chemistry disciplines. Polymer Chemistry - Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is the branch of chemistry the examines the structure and properties of macromolecules and polymers and finds new ways to synthesize these molecules. Solid State Chemistry - Solid state chemistry is the branch of chemistry that is focused on the structure, properties, and chemical processes that occur in the solid phase. Much of solid state chemistry deals with the synthesis and characterization of new solid state materials. Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy examines the interactions between matter and electromagnetic radiation as a function of wavelength. Spectroscopy commonly is used to detect and identify chemicals based on their spectroscopic signatures. Thermochemistry - Thermochemistry may be considered a type of Physical Chemistry. Thermochemistry involves the study of thermal effects of chemical reactions and the thermal energy exchange between processes. Theoretical Chemistry - Theoretical chemistry applies chemistry and physics calculations to explain or make predictions about chemical phenomena. There is overlap between the different branches of chemistry. For example, a polymer chemist typically knows a lot of organic chemistry. A scientist specializing in thermochemistry knows a lot of physical chemistry.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Teens Can Make The Choice! essays Teens Can Make The Choice! Teenagers who get pregnant unintentionally have the choice of keeping their baby or having an abortion. Some choose to keep the child if they are able to support it, but some do not realize that they are not able to give all the support that they need. According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, every day in the United States, about 3,000 teen-age girls will learn that they are pregnant (Rowland). Abortion is not illegal for teenagers to go get it done themselves. Abortion law should stay the same, because there are teenagers that are not able to support another living being, and they should be able to have an abortion. The idea of abortion for young teenagers should be allowed, if they have difficulties raising the child. There are many contraceptives that are available for protection, why are they not used? The According to the Journal of the American Medical Association from 1985 to 1990 birth rates rose about 18 percent among the age of 15-19 year olds, and 95 percent of those were unintended (Rowland). The Planned Parenthood is a voluntary reproductive health care organization that women choose their own destines in when or whether to have a child. They offer many contraceptives such as birth control, condoms, and guidance to any woman. The agencies such as the Planned Parenthood are such great agencies that are available for women to take advantage so that they can have a better life. Abortion being legal is a great advantage because there are many young teens that are not ready to give birth to another living being and take care of it. The law gives a teenager the right to get an abortion without the parents consent. If the law is giving teenagers to have an abortion legally then why are they not using the advantage? According to Peggy Sparks of the Birmingham Community Education says; that they are looking for love, support, and other things t...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Information system of operational management - Essay Example Patsha network design presents the connectivity within and outside the company to enhance information flow. Intranet design presents internal dissemination of information and technical resources while extranet gives an overview of information exchange with external world. Infomeneja IS helps in facilitating implementation of all these designs. Infomeneja IS presents the whole idea of systems but within it sits other sub-system which helps to perform Patsha Operations. These may include; Teleconferencing and mailing system application which help in communication within and outside the company. Sales monitoring and analysis system is another example whose help is to assist in overseeing the sale of published materials and ensure profit realization. An inventory control system will best feature in this to help in stock management. For better management and decision making a decision support system will be embedded to help both middle and top level management. Infomeneja security is one of the major issues of consideration by the Patsha Company to ensure information reliability. A control has to be drafted in regard to the systems security upon the development stages. This control includes aspects such as authentication, authorization, confidentiality and availability of the system resources. These will help to beef up security measures. Authentication should state clearly the identity verification in case of access and in this, infomeneja will implement some authentication principles such as password management, multifactor authentication and biometrics. This will have a direct effect to some other controls strategy such as confidentiality of system
Friday, November 1, 2019
Setting up for urology procedure - Essay Example To properly set up the theatre, the nurses and doctors should work together. The surgery room for the urology procedure needs to have all the equipments ready. This indicates that every item needs to be readily available in the room to avoid the doctors and nurses from running around trying to get the equipments once the procedure starts. The equipment also needs to be placed in a place that is within reach for the surgeons. This will facilitate running of the procedure efficiently. Surgeries are usually timed and it is important that all the equipment required be easily accessed by the surgeons with assistance from the nurses. The people chosen to set up the theatre for the urology procedure should have adequate knowledge of the procedure and what is expected of them. This means that not everyone in the hospital can be tasked with setting up the theatre because some of them may not have the required knowledge. When setting up the theatre, the people involved are encouraged to ask questions in case they need clarifications. This helps to avoid mistakes that may take place in the theatre during a procedure. Mistakes in the theatre pose a great risk to the patient, doctors, surgeons and the nurses involved. The individuals setting up the theatre should ensure that there is enough space to accommodate the patient, surgeons, assistants and all the equipments. Space also helps to facilitate easy movement in the theatre (Dasgupta, Fitzpatrick, Kirby & Gill 2010). Analysis of a situation also needs to be conducted (Ely & Scott 2006). This helps to understand why things happened as they did. In the event that a mistake happened, this process helps to understand why it did and the ways that it can be avoided in future situations. After setting up the theatre, it is important for the process be evaluated (Quinn & Hughes 2007). This means that the nurses or the leader of the surgery can check to make sure that all the set