Saturday, August 31, 2019

Population Health Knowledge And Principles Health And Social Care Essay

Health and Illness from a Population Health PerspectiveNowadays pull offing wellness and unwellness of a state people had become a cardinal precedence of state governments as with this they may face terrible negative heath results. Every state and its officials are concentrating on the direction of their population wellness as it has become critical for achieving long-run being ( Sheffield, 2008 ) . A state ‘s population wellness position pertains to the wellness results of a group of persons, acknowledging the division of such results within the group. Population wellness position is a important attack to wellness that directs to progress the wellness of whole population. From a population wellness position, wellness can be defined a province that is free from disease every bit good as the ability and capacity of persons to accommodate to, respond to, or pull off life ‘s inquirings and changes ( A Population Health Approach, 1999 ) . On the other, from a population wellness perspective unwellness can be defined as a province of hapless wellness of group of persons. As good, it may besides specify as an inability of group of persons to accommodate to, react to and form life ‘s challenges and alterations due to their wellness jobs. In modern epoch jobs related to persons ‘ wellness are increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours and due to this concern towards population wellness has attained significant growing.Social and Structural Determinants of HealthEvery state ‘s functionaries are seeking to keep their population wellness but it is non every bit easy as it seems. All of us have important population wellness cognition and rules but non able to use it in world ( Novick, 2007 ) . For its successful executing it is indispensable to understand the relationships between behavior and wellness results. By understanding this, one can easy develop preventative schemes and rules to forestall unwellness and advancing single and community wellness ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . Using population wellness cognition and rules will go easy if person well understand the societal and structural determiners of wellness ( Turnock, 2008 ) . This could besides be understood with an illustration of population wellness job that is increasing fleshiness. This population wellness job is increasing in about every portion of the universe that needs to be resolved in an effectual mode. The job of fleshiness is increasing in about all high- and low-income states. To curtail and eventually invert the addition in obesity-preponderance rates, all inclusive population wellness based attacks and schemes are required ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . As good, for this it is besides indispensable to understand the societal and structural determiners of wellness so that with that this job of fleshiness can be resolved ( A Population Health Approach, 1999 ) . Designation of wellness determiners is indispensable to develop bar schemes. The cardinal determiners of persons and populations ‘ wellness are the conditions, in which people are born, develop, unrecorded and work. These conditions are so influenced by the societal and economic environment ( Khoury, 2010 ) . All these facets together become a significant cause of disease and agony. Similar is the instance with fleshiness that is besides the consequence of several determiners ( Dean & A ; Fenton, 2010 ) . These wellness determiners can be classified in two important groups that are as follows: Social Determinants Structural Determinants Understanding the multilevel and overlapping nature of present epidemics every bit good as their societal and structural determiners, is significant in the design and executing of more effectual bar plans for commanding increasing fleshiness jobs. Equally good, it is besides the consequence of individual-level determiners that may include bad behaviors such as unhygienic eating wonts and eating more and more debris nutrients ( Novick, 2007 ) . All these patterns of persons are chief drivers of fleshiness. The forms and distribution of these movable diseases in the population are later affected by a vivacious interplay among the preponderance of the morbific agent, the effectiveness of prophylactic and control interjections ( Dean & A ; Fenton, 2010 ) . As good, it is besides affected with a scope of societal and structural environmental factors. Structural determiners of wellness include those physical, economic, societal, organisational, cultural, community, legal, or policy related facets of the environment that obstruct or aid efforts to debar disease spreading ( Semenza & A ; Giesecke, 2008 ) . On the other manus, societal determiners of wellness include the economic and societal conditions of a state that influence the wellness of people and communities ( Raphael, 2006 ) . As good, it besides include stipulations for early childhood development, acquisition, work, income and occupation security, wellness services, nutrient security, and entree to basic services like lodging, societal segregation, and stigma ( Dean & A ; Fenton, 2010 ) . By understanding the general societal and structural determiners of wellness one can easy develop effectual disease bar and control attempts for increasing job of fleshiness. The cognition and apprehension of diverse societal and structural determiners of increasing fleshiness will decidedly help in the development of its bar schemes ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . By developing bar strategies the jobs and diseases related to fleshiness can be controlled efficaciously.Relationship between Behaviour and Health OutcomesThe treatment of societal and structural determiners of wellness groundss that the increasing diseases and wellness results are due to some patterned behavior of persons and populations. Individual ‘s wonts are affected by societal determiners that in bend are affected by structural determiners ( Khoury, 2010 ) . This in bend consequences in terrible wellness results. By understanding these relationships between behaviors and wellness results one can develop effec tual population wellness bar schemes ( Tulchinsky & A ; Varavikova, 2009 ) . Individual hazard behaviors determine the opportunity of contact with other contaminated or morbific persons. Although, these behaviors do non take topographic point in a vacuity and it could be understood in concern to fleshiness ( Population based Public Health Practice, 2003 ) . For increasing fleshiness the built or physical environment are responsible that are increasing debris nutrient wonts among population all age groups. This environment is delighting persons to hold nutrient that is ready to eat and at just monetary value. All of us besides want to hold nutrient outside from place without understanding its negative effects on our wellness ( Dean & A ; Fenton, 2010 ) . Our ain behaviors are driven by increasing figure of fast nutrients and eating houses in each and every metropolis. Both of these determiners are increasing incorrect eating wonts among kids and childs that in bend are ensuing in fleshiness due to their inappropriate diet and consumption of tonss of fats. By understanding relationships among behaviors and wellness results different fleshiness bar schemes like structural and policy or legal can be developed easy ( Raphael, 2006 ) . All these different bar attacks can be implemented by alining with behavioral or medical interjections directed at persons. As good, with an nonsubjective to manage factors that affect single behavior in malice of directing their behavior ( Dean & A ; Fenton, 2010 ) .Application of Population Health Knowledge and Principles to Obesity PreventionWith the aid of population wellness cognition and its important determiners, it can be applied efficaciously in the development of diverse illness bar schemes, welln ess publicity and community capacity edifice. Development of a bar scheme is based on the factors due to which a disease or unwellness is increasing in population injuries ( Egger, Swinburn & A ; Rossner, 2003 ) . Designation of these factors is indispensable for forestalling a disease or unwellness every bit good as for advancing population wellness. The treatment of fleshiness and its societal and structural determiners provide a model through which preventative schemes against weight addition and fleshiness can be developed. Although there are several others diverse factors that are involved in the etiology of fleshiness and weight addition but the most significant factors are social and environmental ( Egger & A ; Swinburn, 1997 ) . These factors affect energy consumption and outgo that in bend is affected by familial and other biological factors like age, sex and hormonal activity on which there is small or no control ( World Health Organization, 2000 ) . A state facing job of fleshiness can easy develop effectual bar schemes by concentrating on these rules: Social, political, cultural, structural and physical environment elements that together impact the weight position of population ( Bray & A ; Bouchard, 2004 ) . By developing processs and programmes to manage those persons and groups who are at high hazard of weight addition and fleshiness. Appropriate direction protocols ( World Health Organization, 2000 ) . In add-on to the concentration on these above discussed facets, it is besides indispensable that fleshiness bar schemes are determined in a manner that should avoid precipitating and the development of eating upsets. In add-on to this for successful bar schemes it is indispensable to set about thorough analysis of different states fleshiness direction attacks ( World Health Organization, 2000 ) . With this, it will go easy to place a coherent and comprehensive attack to pull off fleshiness and job of weight addition ( Eckel, 2003 ) . As good, it is besides believed that the attitude of wellness professionals towards fleshiness is non appropriate that can be made more effectual by supplying them developing and larning. For effectual declaration of increasing fleshiness job a high national committedness is required. This committedness should be a shared duty of consumers, authoritiess, nutrient industry & A ; trade and the media ( World Health Organization, 2000 ) . Support from all these groups play a significant function in commanding fleshiness by advancing effectual alterations in present diet forms and mundane physical activity degrees ( Bray & A ; Bouchard, 2004 ) . By following all these rules one can easy develop effectual fleshiness bar schemes. Till now, fleshiness bar and fleshiness direction were seen as two different facets. Obesity bar was aimed at forestalling weight addition whereas fleshiness direction was aimed at weight loss. In present, these two are non different from each other as obesity direction includes all short-run and long-run schemes ( World Health Organization, 2000 ) . These schemes vary from bar, weight continuation, and direction of fleshiness comorbidities to burden loss ( Eckel, 2003 ) . In present one can easy pull off job of weight addition and fleshiness by concentrating on following schemes: Prevention of weight addition Promotion of weight care Management of fleshiness comorbidities Promotion of weight loss ( World Health Organization, 2000 ) . These schemes entirely can non be used until or unless degrees of preventative action are non determined. In instance of fleshiness job that is distributing all over the universe the preventative schemes need to be applied on these degrees of bar:Community Health Prevention:Through these bar programmes, schemes can be directed at the population or community. With this plan, the degree of fleshiness in the population can be stabilized efficaciously. These community based bar schemes can be introduced through different community plans related to population diet forms betterment, weight care and regular wellness check-ups. A state may follow diverse community-based intercessions in the way of bettering its population dietary forms and direction of associated hazard factors like BMI or serum cholesterin degrees ( World Health Organization, 2000 ) . These plans may include big communities like more than 100 000 people and may be implemented for longer periods like for 10 old ages or more than 10 old ages. Several these sorts of intercessions are implemented in Europe and North America ( World Health Organization, 2000 ) . Other states are besides implementing community based bar schemes but merely some of them have attained success. This is due to the deficiency of planned and comprehensive attack that is most indispensable for the success of long community based bar schemes. In present every states should develop specific community based bar schemes as with this lone it is possible to command diet forms of its population. If, a state functionaries will non take any introductory stairss in forestalling fleshiness its other governments and scene will besides non work in this way ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . Working in this way is most indispensable in present epoch as the job of weight addition and fleshiness is increasing well and ensuing in several other related diseases.Selective Prevention:These bar steps can be directed at specific groups of population who are really at high hazard of increasing fleshiness. Selective bar schemes may be inducted through different scenes like schools, montages, community Centres, place environments, vicinities, workplaces, shopping mercantile establishments and primary attention ( World Health Organization, 2000 ) . With the aid of this preventative scheme one can easy progress the cognition and abilities of groups of peoples so that they can cover more efficaciously with the factors that may put them at important hazard of turning fleshiness. Schools, colleges and community Centres are portion of a natural scene that can be used to impact the nutrient and physical activity environments for kids and childs. By doing alterations in these educational institutes policy related to athleticss engagement and physical instruction clip the job of fleshiness among pupils and kids can be decreased significantly. As good, alterations related to active manners of conveyance to and from school will besides necessitate effectual policy. By making this the job of fleshiness can be managed at significant degree ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . In add-on to educational scenes, vicinities can besides be targeted for active diversion. Changes in the walking web that includes pathwaies and walking paths, the cycling web that includes roads and rhythm waies will ease diversion. Increase in the figure of informal and formal diversion infinites like Parkss, metropolis nines, athleticss evidences and diversion Centres ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . Addition in the figure of these infinites and recreational Centres will better physical activity degree of persons that in bend will command their weight and overall job of fleshiness. Another specific country of population that can be targeted is home environment. It is the most of import scene in concern to changing kids ‘s feeding and physical activity behaviors. By developing good feeding wonts and physical activities among households the job of fleshiness can be resolved well ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . Work environment is another topographic point through which feeding and physical wonts of persons can be improved. By developing effectual plans and advertisements, the eating wonts of a house ‘s employees can be improved. They may supply day-to-day column in their organisation magazine and newspapers that employees read daily every bit good as they can develop different postings and messages on their corporate site. All these attempts will decidedly convey alterations in employees ‘ eating wonts that in bend will command their weight addition and fleshiness related jobs ( Kopelman, 2001 ) .Environmental Prevention:The most recent fleshiness bar scheme emerged are environmental bar schemes. These schemes include obesity direction attacks related to environment. These schemes analyze the whole factors of environment in which single or group of persons live. It focuses on the direction of these different environmental factors so that the job of fleshiness and weight addition can be resolved efficaciously ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . These environmental schemes do non merely make to populations with hapless wellness results but it besides targets them differentially. These schemes include betterment of school nutrient programmes and active diversion and physical activity comfortss. Equally good as regular wellness check-ups and weight check-ups at authorities infirmaries and associations. With these schemes poorer countries wellness results can be improved well ( Fletcher & A ; Grundy, 1999 ) . This scheme can besides be directed with the alteration in physical environment for diversion, nutrient Torahs, local authorities conveyance policies, etc. This whole procedure will convey a significant alteration into a state ‘s system that is indispensable to command fleshiness and its associated diseases ( O'Dea, 2005 ) .Targeted Prevention:One of the other significant bar schemes that can be used to forestall weight addition and fleshiness is targeted bar. These schemes are directed at persons who are already over weight and those who are non over weight but devouring tonss of fats daily without sing its hereafter consequences ( World Health Orga nization, 2000 ) . With the aid of these schemes persons can be controlled in their weight addition. As good, it besides assists in diminishing the figure of people who develop fleshiness associated comorbidities ( Fletcher & A ; Grundy, 1999 ) . All these bar schemes offer a long-run attack to cover with the jobs of weight addition and fleshiness but it is non sufficient as there is besides a demand of diverse intercessions and bar schemes. Every state is required to develop influential and sustainable schemes in concern to burden care and fleshiness direction ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . As good, high investings in different media runs are critical along with systemic alterations. Nowadays media is the most influential tool for pull offing present terrible diseases through effectual messages and by exposing its injuries ( Egger, Swinburn & A ; Rossner, 2003 ) . For pull offing fleshiness related jobs it is besides indispensable to alter people societal attitudes along with important policy alterations. Food sector related policies requires significant alterations like: Changes in financial nutrient policies for diminishing demands of some debris nutrients. Constitution of nutrition information panels. Nutrition signposting programmes Development of diverse wellness and nutrition claims. Ad prohibitions on kids ‘s Television ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . In add-on to this, it is besides indispensable that the more general authorities policies that influence income distribution, employment, lodging and societal services adopt important alterations from clip to clip. All these facets are extremely influencive on people eating wonts. Everyone needs to follow a changed attack if wants to cover with fleshiness and salvage its state with future problems and terrible diseases ( Andersen, 2003 ) . The publicity of healthy feeding and physical activity guidelines and messages is besides indispensable to command increasing fleshiness problems. With the aid of different advanced mass-media runs and other communicating schemes public of state can be educated sing healthy eating wonts and physical activity degree. The USA runs like the ‘Healthy Eating Pyramid ‘ , the ‘5-a-day for better wellness ‘ and ‘National Cholesterol Education Program ‘ are rather good known and every bit good as effectual ( Swinburn & A ; Egger, 2002 ) . Effective media runs and publicities will hold a important impact on population cognition, attitudes, apprehension, and purpose. By following all the above discussed bar schemes and other policies the problem of fleshiness and weight addition can be handled efficaciously and expeditiously ( Andersen, 2003 ) .DecisionWith the aid of this elaborate treatment of population wellness cognition and rules, it can be said the job of fleshiness is increasing due to incorrect eating wonts of populations. By following effectual bar schemes on community and single degree this job can be resolved efficaciously. Understanding of societal and structural determiners is besides rather helpful in the development of effectual weight addition and fleshiness bar schemes ( Kopelman, 2001 ) . Management of this job is indispensable as otherwise it may direct persons to severe wellness jobs like diabetes. By using old population wellness cognition and principles the job of increasing fleshiness can be handl ed efficaciously.

Difference Between Tangled and Classic Princess Movies

Jaimie Kim English 1: Language Dynamics First Draft of Analytical Essay November 6, 2012 â€Å"Well, I’m really not supposed to speak to strangers, but we’ve met before †¦ once upon a dream. † This quote from Sleeping Beauty portrays Walt Disney Productions’ grand tradition of Disney princess movies of how most of the female protagonists are waiting for her love. . In 2010, however, Disney created a movie, named Tangled, which was based on the Grimm Brothers’ tale of Rapunzel. Although Disney decided to put its own version of this tale, Tangled is still about the long-haired princess who is locked away in a tower by a witch.Instead of dreaming about love, Tangled presents a story where Rapunzel makes a deal with a thief, Flynn Rider, to go on an escapade to see the festival of lights that appear annually on her birthday. Among the classic Disney princess movies, Tangled is distinguishable because of the lack of femininity shown in the title. Di sney had named all the fairy tales with titles that did not intrigue all audiences, such as Cinderella, Beauty and the Beast, and Sleeping Beauty. On the contrary, the tale about Rapunzel was not named Rapunzel, but rather the title Tangled, which interested a larger audience.Another difference that can be seen between Tangled and The Little Mermaid, as the ideal classic princess movie, is the female protagonists approach to love – Rapunzel to Flynn Rider and Ariel to Eric. Lastly, the other princess movies were mostly all drawn by hand and appeared to be ‘flat’ while Tangled was created with computer-generated images that made the visuals more attractive and, therefore, was added to the list of successful animated films that were produced by Disney.The titles of the classic princess movies followed a pattern: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was a movie about the princess Snow White, Cinderella was about Cinderella, and Sleeping Beauty was about the princess Auro ra. These titles had female characteristics that caught girls’ interest, but did not appeal to the other half of the young audience – the boys. Nevertheless, those movies were successful, but why did Disney decide to change its style for the title of the story of Rapunzel?Many believed that the title change may have had something to do with them altering the traditional  Rapunzel  story enough that it warranted a completely different title. Adam Markovitz, however, argues that â€Å"because  The Princess and the Frog  was no great shakes at the box office [in 2009] and Disney wanted to make the project seem less †¦ girlish, [the title] was changed from Rapunzel Unbraided to Tangled. † This proves that Disney thought that The Princess and the Frog place in the box office was a failure because of the title.This leads to why they named the movie Tangled, so they can attract varied demographics. It also drew the audience’s attention to the duoâ⠂¬â„¢s complicated relationship. In addition, this movie was not all about Rapunzel, because there was another protagonist besides the princess – Flynn Rider. By having the title as Tangled, Disney broke the standard of titling the princess movies by their names. Based on the main character’s attitude towards love, Tangled is distinctive from Disney’s The Little Mermaid. I specifically chose this classic princess movie because many believe that Rapunzel is an Ariel ‘knock-off. Throughout The Little Mermaid, Ariel and Eric communicate to each other by only smiling and doing gestures. It was slightly ridiculous how they still managed to fall in love, as shown in the scene where Ariel udders: â€Å"Daddy, I love [Eric]! † and, in the end, gets married. The reason behind the whole concept of love at first sight is, as Robin Murray says, â€Å"If Ariel wasn’t attractive, Eric would not be as motivated to spend time with her. Likewise, if Eric was unattractive, Ariel wouldn’t have sold her soul to be with him. (146) This proves that fact that the relationship was based entirely on looks, because these two characters did not communicate with each other effectively. As a result, they knew nothing about each other besides seeing that the significant other was attractive and, therefore, the one for them. This shows that the Disney princess movies were all about the idea of love at first sight. Aside from the concept of love, Tangled was a movie that had a plot that related to reality, minus the magical hair of Rapunzel. This can be seen at â€Å"the moment where Rapunzel scoffs at Flynn when he broke out his charm.This sets her apart from most of the other princesses, who would most likely swoon over Flynn’s charisma. In the presence of an attractive guy, Ariel jeopardizes her existence, but Rapunzel is not impressed and is ready to use her frying pan as a weapon. Throughout the movie, Rapunzel and Flynn’s relationship contrasts greatly from Ariel and Eric’s. They don’t fall in love instantly, which doesn’t follow that princess movies’ storyline of love at first sight. â€Å"Their relationship progresses and the audience are able to witness all the individual brilliant moments they shared together. Rapunzel and Flynn first had a friendship that was a combination of fun and passion that later progressed organically and realistically, into love. Rapunzel’s approach to love was more respectable and relatable to the viewers, which shows the difference between Tangled from not only The Little Mermaid, but also to the rest of the classic princess movies. The classic Disney princess movies were all made from the traditional hand-drawn process. Due to limitations in computer technology, many basic principles of animation had been absent from these movies.Tangled was created by using  computer-generated imagery, known as CGI. Even though it was a CGI film, the producers wanted this movie to be more attractive visually by still having movement that mimicked the soft fluidity of the hand-drawn art found in classic Disney princess movies. This is why Disney decided to have the movie modeled after the romantic look of French Rococo oil paintings on canvas from the artist, Jean-Honore Fragonard, as stated by New York Times. (Scott) This helped add an atmosphere that had a magical appearance.Rather than focusing on realism, the 3D team decided to use an aesthetic approach that drew the audience in a fantasy. Tangled’s stereoscopic supervisor, Robert Newman, explains of the process of the new approach: â€Å"We’re using depth more artistically than before, by using a new technique called multi-rigging, which is made up by multiple pairs of  virtual cameras. Each pair is used individually on each separate element that adds depth to a scene, like background, foreground and characters, without adjusting for the relation with t he other pairs.

Friday, August 30, 2019

How is Iago Presented In Act 1 Of “Othello” Essay

â€Å"Othello† was a play written by William Shakespeare in 1603. This play is a tragedy written in iambic pentameter, with a noble hero named Othello and a devious villain called Iago. Iago changes the story for the worst as he causes Othello to commit suicide and murder his loyal wife because of his fatal flow which is jealousy. The opening of the play confuses the audience for Iago and Roderigo are arguing over Desdemona. The audience may also be confused for they don’t know who the characters are and why they are having this discussion. The confusion and chaos in the play is related to when Queen Elizabeth died for this is how the country felt at the time and were in the middle of a controversy. They may also be shocked when the performance first starts for on stage would have been the first black male performer as there was a lot of prejudice at the time. Act 1 scene 1 begins with an argument between Iago and Roderigo as this was an effective way to start a play as it gets the audience hooked, because they want to find out what they are arguing about. Iago is Shakespeare’s villain and the audience almost immediately become aware of this hence he has been taking money from a character named Roderigo. This is because Iago was accepting money from him to try and persuade Desdemona to meet Roderigo. We can show this for he says â€Å"That thou, Iago, who hast my purse as if the strings were thine†. This shows that Iago can manipulate people very easily he feels he is like a puppeteer been able to have control people. This may make the audience feel sympathetic for Roderigo because he has been duped by his trusted friend. Shakespeare is presenting Iago immediately in a negative light for he contrasts him with the well spoken Roderigo. We also know that theatre was the best kind of entertainment in the early 1600s. However, also in act I scene I, Shakespeare allows the audience to feel some sympathy for Iago because he loses his position of lieutenant to Michael Cassio. We can show this as he says â€Å"I have already chose my officer.† And what was he? Forsooth, a great arithmetician,. One Michael Cassio, a Florentine. That never set a squadron in the field, nor the division of a battle knows more than a sinister-unless the bookish theatrics†. At this  part the audience start to feel sorry for Iago because it should have been him who got the promotion. Othello knows that Iago can fight well in battle as it quotes â€Å"And I of whom his eyes had seen the proof at Rhodes, at Cyprus and on other grounds†. This makes the audience confused on why Othello gave the position to Cassio and not Iago. In the text it says â€Å"Forsooth, a great arithmetician† showing that Cassio is intelligent, however not strong in battle. In the first scene, Iago states â€Å"It is as sure as you are Roderigo, Were the moor, I would not be Iago, In following him, I follow myself† which is showing that he doesn’t follow Othello’s orders and makes his own decisions in what he thinks is right. Later, he says â€Å"I am not what I am† which insists that he is following Othello as a loyal, honest friend when the audience, myself and Roderigo know the true side to him. This is shown because Iago and Roderigo wake Brabantio up in the middle of the night by shouting vulgar comments at his window. They awake Brabantio by saying â€Å"Awake! What, ho, Brabantio! Thieves! Thieves! Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags! Thieves! Thieves!†. This shows the audience that they both have no respect, even though Brabantio is a senator. We know this because Iago says to Roderigo â€Å"Do, with like timorous accent and dire yell as when, by night and negligence, the fire is spied in populous cities†. This shows the audience that Iago can get people to do anything he wants them to do, backing up the point that he is like a puppeteer. By awaking brabantio in the middle of the night and saying â€Å"Look to your house, your daughter†, it would make him check that Desdemona is in the bed, but as she is absent from the house, this would expose desdemona’s secret to her father. The audience would also feel shocked and disgusted in Iago and Roderigo for they are grown men and are showing a low level of maturity. Iago later shouts â€Å"Even now, very now, an old black ram is tupping your white ewe† insisting that Othello and Desdemona are having sexual intercourse at this moment in time. The audience can now see that Iago is rude, arrogant, foul mouthed and has low social class. In this scene Shakespeare presents Iago as a devious and manipulative man. One way he does this is that Iago sets up a confrontation between Roderigo and Brabantio, then slyly walks of leaving Roderigo to bear the brunt of  Brabantio`s anger. However, Iago’s ultimate aim is to get revenge on Othello because he gave his promotion to Michael Cassio, even though he is far better in battle and has proved this when Iago says â€Å"Of whom his eyes had seen the proof at Rhodes, at Cyprus and on other grounds†. This shows that Othello has seen that he rightfully deserved the position of lieutenant. In act I scene I, Iago is twisting Brabantio’s mind and poisoning it with hatred towards Othello in order to make Brabantio urge to cause trouble for him. I think this shows the audience that Iago being cowardly because instead of facing up to Othello and speaking to him about his disagreement for he makes Brabantio and Roderigo work for him. He does this so he doesn’t get his trust put into question by Othello. This could also lead to him being called a traitor. He is also represented as being manipulative with this quote, â€Å"As if the strings were thine† saying that he is like a puppeteer with control over whoever he chooses which later in the play, his skills will pay off as his plan comes into action by getting everyone against each other and it results in mass murder though suspicious Iago aroused. In addition, right at the end of act I scene I, Iago directs Roderigo in the direction of Othello making him in control of the situation showing how easily manipulated Roderigo is. Pace is built throughout the beginning of the first scene when Iago is making long speeches and rants about Othello. The pace rapidly increases when it gets to the point where Roderigo is under Iago’s spell and is convinced by what he is saying. This is when Iago encourages him to tell Brabantio about Othello and Desdemona, â€Å"Call up her father, rouse him†. As soon as Roderigo agrees and begins to wake Brabantio, Iago’s confidence rises as he knows he has accomplished the first part of his devious scheme to get revenge on Othello. Tension is built during the first part of the scene when Iago is giving his monologue, it is an emotional speech and Roderigo learns a lot about him from it. For example, when he says â€Å"I wear my heart upon my sleeve†, we know he is not an honest, decent person. It is tense because Roderigo is confused about what to say as he is intimidated by Iago who is very arrogant and proud of himself. Towards the end of the scene, t he tension has eased and no one is anxious anymore because everything that needed to be said, has been. So in act I scene I, Iago isn’t everything he starts off as being represented as it would seem. We begin to believe his ploys of innocence and then they are greatly subverted and changed. Everything we are led to believe changes in minutes of reading as pity turns to hate, and friendship turns to duplicity and manipulation.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Dolphins Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Dolphins - Research Paper Example Generally, male dolphins are bigger than the females. Dolphins live worldwide in almost all major seas (mostly shallow seas of the continental shelves) and oceans, and some large river systems. Nevertheless, their circulation is not random – each species of dolphin has become specialized to thrive in a specific  niche, and each species of dolphin has a special role in the niche (, 1-4, &, 1). All dolphins are  carnivores and while some feed exclusively on cephalopods  or  fish, the diet of others is more varied and it includes lobsters, fish, crabs, squid, and shrimps.  Even though dolphins are said to possess pretty good eyesight, their murky/dark environment usually reduce their visibility. They therefore largely rely on their hearing sense to comprehend the world around them and to look for prey (, 12). They have a large brain (almost the humans’ size) that possesses a remarkable capability of learning and mimicking behaviors (, 9). records the fact that dolphins famous for their dexterity and mischievous character, which makes them wildlife watchers to love them. They can be seen leaping out of water, spy-hop/rise out of the water vertically to see their surroundings and trail ships, mostly synchronize their progress with each other. Dolphins are believed to preserve energy through bow-riding (swimming beside ships). Naturally, dolphins are very social animals and they mostly rely on social interaction during reproduction, defense and while hunting. They hunt for prey using echolocation and by surrounding a school of fish, swimming through the school and catching their prey in turns. They have a tendency of forming long-lasting groups, which vary in size from a small number of animals (2-40) known as  pods, to bigger groups called   herds or   schools  comprising of hundreds of dolphins. These groups may comprise several

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Critical Review of Nelson Mandelas Autobiography, A Long Walk to Essay

Critical Review of Nelson Mandelas Autobiography, A Long Walk to Freedom - Essay Example Along with his peers, Mandela was inculcated with a tremendous sense of responsibility to his family and community. This is evident from his statement, "at night, I shared my food and blanket with these same boys. I was no more than five when I became a herd-boy, looking after sheep and calves in the fields." The important element that contributed to the political consciousness of Mandela during his youth was his listening to the elders of his village discuss the history of their people. "It was from Chief Joyi that I began to discover that the history of the Bantu-speaking peoples began far to the north continent." He learned much about some of the atrocities experienced by his people under European colonial rule and this began to shape his consciousness. Mandela's desire to study law emanated from his observations of the paramount chief conducting court in his village and from his commitment to helping to end minority rule in South Africa. "My later notions of leadership were prof oundly influenced by observing the regent and his court. I watched and learned from the tribal meetings that were regularly held at the Great Place". Mandela's initiation into political activism began in 1940 while he was working on his degree at Fort Hare College in the Eastern Cape. He did well academically but he began to realize himself as 'the other'. "We were taught -- and believed -- that the best ideas were English ideas, the best government was English government, and the best men were Englishmen. " Such education persuaded him to forge an identity of his own. As a member of the Student's Representative Council, he was suspended from school for participating in a boycott to protest the reduction of the council's powers by authorities. After returning home briefly, he soon left for Johannesburg to avoid an arranged marriage and being trained for chieftainship. The events that occurred here are important as they shape Mandela's views about segregation. While working as a mine policeman, he observed, "the mining companies preferred such segregation because it prevented different ethnic groups from uniting around a common grievance and reinforced the power of the chiefs." During this period, the early 1940's, Mandela became politically aware and joined the African National Congress (ANC), a middle-class political movement founded in 1912. Chafing at the ANC's ineffectiveness in getting the government to recognize African rights, he helped launch its Youth League in 1944. Four years later, the Afrikaner-dominated National Party's rise to power began the apartheid era and made ANC activities more urgent. In the early 1950s he initiated the defiance campaign' against the discriminatory policies of the South African government, and argued for non-violent resistance to apartheid. However, following the Sharpeville massacre in 1960 his position changed, and he was forced underground to avoid the newly-imposed ban on the ANC. The horrors at Sharp eville hardened Mandela's resolve, and he began to advocate a different course of non-terrorist' action, aimed at the state but theoretically preventing civilian unrest. He was appointed the campaign's national volunteer-in-chief, which required that he travel throughout South Africa visiting the many black townships in order to explain and win mass support for the campaign.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Research paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Research Paper Example Services offered can either be of personal or corporate finance levels. Similar to any other industry, financial sector needs appropriate tools and technologies in managing and delivering services to clients. Use of those tools facilitate efficient and effective service provision; hence enhancing the commercial concept of profitability. This research paper strives to appraise the breadth and depth of technology integration in finance, especially information technology and changes brought by the integration. Four decades ago, information technology only found wide application in military institutions. Military units used secured networks in relying communications. Financial institutions used traditional ledger books in keeping transaction records. Later, banking sector adopted the use of secure communication channels to deliver sensitive information for processes like confirming funds reception. Currently, technology dominates almost every aspect of financial services industry. According to Balling and Lierman (2009), technological tools like computers allow generation of financial statements, budgets and expected rate of return with a single click of an icon. In addition, investment companies can easily make precise predictions of future financial trends using customized software programs. Technology not only enhances production of records but also improves the labor aspects of the industry. Effective communication tools like internet, Skype and video conferencing allows company manage rs to outsource jobs to experts’ location. Times when Wall Street had to mail each client a stamped copy of a general meeting letter are long gone. Moreover, piling of financial records in files became redundant. With rapid evolution of technology, computer systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated, reliable and fast. This speed of evolution created the

Monday, August 26, 2019

Criterion Referenced Tests and the Norm Referenced Tests Research Paper

Criterion Referenced Tests and the Norm Referenced Tests - Research Paper Example This essay highlights that  the criterion-referenced tests are intended to measure a person understands of a specific concept or skills that were required and are usually used in job evaluations and also in acquiring licenses. Under the CRT the tests are either a pass or a fail for a particular test since it tests if one has conceptualized a given concept or skill or not. The norm-referenced tests on the other hand are used to compare a given examinee with the other examinees. Under the norm-standard tests the examinees are given a similar test and they are compared against the results of each other that are put on a graph where the normal distribution is analyzed and the other extremes on either side of the curve are also characterized.  This discussion stresses that  the norm-referenced tests are usually used in schools and in grading students to understand the students that can make it to the next level as they are used to test their capability in the specific subjects and h ow they relate to their development educationally. As opposed to the CRT where there are no ranks but only a pass or a fail the ranking system is the most important aspect of the NRT system since the students that will pass and those that have failed need to be known to the teacher or practitioner.  The NRTs use criteria where the student is compared with other students in the classroom to gauge their capability in comparison to their peers.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Bringing Out the Best in People Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Bringing Out the Best in People - Essay Example In fact, the superior leaders were even using these principles long before psychology was formally given its name. McGinnis' book, "Bringing Out the Best in People," showcases interesting anecdotes and case studies illustrating how a person can put 12 key principles to work for any group, may it be a family or an organization. So whether one is a parent, a friend, a teacher or an executive, his/her satisfaction can be guaranteed by "Bringing Out the Best in People." The author makes it really easy for his/her readers. The 12 principles or rules that he discovered are incredibly easy to follow. The list, however, is not meant to be limiting. It is actually meant to entice the reader to devour the whole book. Right from the start, McGinnis declared that he is taking a Christian standpoint in his approach of the topic at hand. With that said, he actually gives hope to anybody who wants to make a difference by motivating other people. As he points out, "Motivators are not born-they are made." The author asserts that the mental attitude already exists for prospective motivators since it is a human instinct that drives people to do something about lethargy and boredom, and be challenged instead. "Deep in the breast of everyone there is a drive to achieve something, to be somebody," McGinnis says. McGinnis develops his book by doing several things. First, he tells his readers about his observation on listening. According to him, if one will only listen to other people patiently, they will actually reveal what will motivate them. Next, he expounds on the value of encouraging others and creating the optimal work environment in an organization. He said this means giving space for failure because failure is sometimes inevitable when risks are taken, though temporary. Toward the end, the author includes an inspiring section on various leaders, dreamers and the lonely lifestyles these individuals often lead. The book ends with a quote from Goethe, "Whatever you dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it." This book is actually useful since it can help a person gain more focus if he/she will take to heart whatever he/she has read and follow whatever the book suggests. McGinnis also guarantees that communication skills will actually be enhanced because of this book. And because of this benefit, a person will be respected more by other people as his/her ability to relate to them improves dramatically and becomes more efficient. In order to help others to grow, it would be helpful to rise up to the challenge of the 12 rules or principles outlined by McGinnis in his book. According to the author, anyone who wants to be a great motivator and help others grow should do the following: 1. Expect the best from his/her employees and those he/she leads. 2. Understand the needs of his/her employees and use the information to create an environment that builds their motivation. 3. Establish standards of excellence that are attainable for your employees and those he/she leads. 4. Create an environment where failure isn't fatal. 5. Encourage his/her employees as opposed to nagging them. 6. Provide models of success

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Management seminar Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

Management seminar - Essay Example The author says, "Some companies are making significant progress in stripping away stumbling blocks to gender diversity," (Issue 9, Women in Corporate Levels pg. 133). Among the diversity strategies, there is effective communication in the business case effectively within the whole organization beginning with the top administration. In this case, managers have the responsibility of availing broadcasts to their employees. This means that employees of both genders will be able to follow up on their proceedings and programs thereby enhancing diversity at the workplace. In the process of cultivating female leaders, the organizations should have the core objective of helping women to realize success. Using Safeway as an example, it realized that 70% of their customers were women. On realizing this, they had to broaden the diversity of their personnel so as to bring reflection of their client base. Male leaders have always been on the Frontline of every job opportunities, including grocery. The company realized that it could help women reach their success by employing them in these departments. In the process of developing future leaders, through the Retail Leadership Development (RLD) programs, women should be given chances. When this initiative came in, it particularly targeted women so as to increase the number of women who attend training. In this program, there were efforts to encourage women to advance towards managerial positions. It also ensured all the employees had equal opportunities for coaching, development, and advancing. There was also the establishment of womens development networks. This was primarily established for those women who were interested in advancing into management. This development network provides learning and networking opportunities for women across different sectors. They can share ideas, views as well as ideologies, getting

Friday, August 23, 2019

Nursing Philosophy Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Nursing Philosophy Paper - Essay Example In othÐ µr words, it is thÐ µ nursÐ µÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s rÐ µsponsibility to havÐ µ thÐ µ ability to do things for thÐ µmsÐ µlvÐ µs, in a lifÐ µlong lÐ µarning procÐ µss that Ð µnrichÐ µs thÐ µm. ThÐ µ currÐ µnt invÐ µstigation looks at my own nursing philosophy, and how thÐ µ subjÐ µct of transitions is addrÐ µssÐ µd in thÐ µ CCSU modÐ µl, as wÐ µll as othÐ µr subjÐ µcts rÐ µlÐ µvant to my philosophy. Transitions and CCSU ModÐ µl ThÐ µ CCSU modÐ µl statÐ µs thrÐ µÃ µ main goals: prÐ µparing lÐ µadÐ µrs, Ð µncouraging activÐ µ lÐ µarnÐ µrs, and producing collaborativÐ µ practitionÐ µrs. Еach of thÐ µsÐ µ goals is complÐ µmÐ µntary with thÐ µ thrÐ µÃ µ main typÐ µs of transition that arÐ µ idÐ µntifiÐ µd: dÐ µvÐ µlopmÐ µntal, situational, and organizational. DÐ µaling with thÐ µsÐ µ transitions and intÐ µrsticÐ µs, mÐ µans also dÐ µaling with lÐ µgal issuÐ µs of rÐ µsponsibility. Having an Ð µxtÐ µnsivÐ µ nursing backgro und in transitional issuÐ µs is vÐ µry important and it should bÐ µ basÐ µd on sÐ µrving cliÐ µnt or patiÐ µnt nÐ µÃ µds. ThÐ µrÐ µ arÐ µ many Ð µxamplÐ µs of patiÐ µnt nÐ µÃ µds and what thÐ µy want for a good quality of carÐ µ from thÐ µ nursÐ µ, basÐ µd on what kind of illnÐ µss thÐ µy may havÐ µ morÐ µ risk factors for. All patiÐ µnts arÐ µ ablÐ µ to idÐ µntify challÐ µngÐ µs to mÐ µÃ µting thÐ µir nÐ µÃ µds. ... ?quÐ µntly givÐ µn in tÐ µrms of Ð µxamplÐ µs to thÐ µ trainÐ µÃ µ about how thÐ µy would rÐ µspond Ð µthically to common complaints of misconduct through situational analysis. NursÐ µs havÐ µ always usÐ µd a problÐ µm solving approach to providÐ µ carÐ µ to cliÐ µnts. In thÐ µ samÐ µ way a problÐ µm solving approach can bÐ µ usÐ µd for transitional dilÐ µmmas and will incorporatÐ µ thÐ µ transitional thÐ µoriÐ µs (Murphy, 1990, 1). DÐ µscription of own philosophy ChangÐ µ is dÐ µfinÐ µd gÐ µnÐ µrally in rÐ µlation to CCSU goals as wÐ µll as spÐ µcifically to thÐ µ hÐ µalthcarÐ µ fiÐ µld, which is a fiÐ µld that has gonÐ µ through a lot of changÐ µ rÐ µcÐ µntly with MÐ µdicarÐ µ and MÐ µdicaid, HMOs, cost containmÐ µnt, rÐ µform undÐ µr Obama, Ð µtc. ThÐ µ hÐ µalthcarÐ µ organization of today is attÐ µmpting to undÐ µrscorÐ µ its position as a consumÐ µr drivÐ µn organization by strÐ µssing both individual and group insura ncÐ µ options in intÐ µrnal litÐ µraturÐ µ. But at thÐ µ samÐ µ timÐ µ it is a systÐ µm that has changÐ µd and is gÐ µarÐ µd towards cutting costs, so RNs must lÐ µarn to rÐ µact to this changÐ µ in a cliÐ µnt cÐ µntÐ µrÐ µd way to dÐ µlivÐ µr a bÐ µttÐ µr hÐ µalth carÐ µ Ð µxpÐ µriÐ µncÐ µ. My philosophy goÐ µs back to thÐ µmÐ µs mÐ µntionÐ µd abovÐ µ, of adult lÐ µarning and lifÐ µtimÐ µ lÐ µarning for thÐ µ RN. In tÐ µrms of how I fÐ µÃ µl about lifÐ µlong lÐ µarning in rÐ µaction to transition thÐ µory and CCSU objÐ µctivÐ µs, I am a big supportÐ µr of this thÐ µory of lÐ µarning. I think that thÐ µrÐ µ is a clÐ µar Ð µxprÐ µssion of how important lifÐ µlong lÐ µarning is today, whÐ µn comparÐ µd to thÐ µ past, by looking at how many adult studÐ µnts thÐ µrÐ µ arÐ µ in RN training programs. TwÐ µnty or thirty yÐ µars ago this would havÐ µ bÐ µÃ µn a rarity, but today thÐ µrÐ µ arÐ µ rising amounts of nontra ditional adult studÐ µnts and falling amounts of traditional youngÐ µr

What is the Buddhist Critique of the Christian understanding of God Term Paper

What is the Buddhist Critique of the Christian understanding of God - Term Paper Example Whatever the case, misconception of religious aspects have elicited debates which tend to prove or disapprove practices that do not conform to the perceived beliefs. The concern is not to discredit the practices observed, but to contend to factors that led to such practices. Recent development in the religious circle indicates a practice, which does not seek to find the truth, but creates competition among the religionists. The suspicions that a given group of religionist directs towards others does not portray the intention of religion in humanity. The aim of this paper is critique Buddhist understanding of the God served by Christians. Christian Understanding Christianity is a religion that traces its foundation from the teaching, death and life of Jesus Christ. The focus on Jesus Christ by Christians point to the God they serve. History of Christianity points various incidents when God revealed Himself to men. Understanding the concept of Christian faith necessitate the understand ing of nature of God they serve. Christians profess to serve a God who is monotheist and posses qualities such as ever presence, exercises control over nature and has the ability of redeeming humankind from its predicament.Human beings feel that it is wrong to commit ill against a fellow human being. Religionists contend that perception professed in religious faiths tend to promote harmony in humanity. Pointing at the Christian understanding, human beings co exists as a family whose head is God. The teaching of Christianity project evil deeds as influences, which distract the moral will of God. Humankind has thus been lost because of the practices, which they do. The road to redemption from this lose is through Jesus Christ. Redemption from the evils in the concept of Christian understanding is to focus on Jesus Christ whose misery in death and resurrection redeemed humankind from all sin3. The concept of Christian faith has the following elements punishment for sins, redemption, fo rgiveness and new birth. Christians’ belief observes sin as a factor that separate human beings from divinity of God. God is a divine creature above other creatures. The explanation of Gods existence transcends thought which argue on His visibility. Redemption is relevant to Christians because of the separation created by sin4. The point in the Christian tradition is to serve a God that redeems humankind from the ills of sin. Forgiveness element bring a Christian back to the fold of God since the stain of sin would no longer influence relationship between human beings and God. Forgiveness of sin can only happen when a person believe in the teaching of Jesus and profess the same faith to others. Not until then, human beings have no power over sin. The concept of new birth differentiates a Christian from other human beings who do not profess the same faith. The nature of God that Christians serve is unique in the sense that God respect life, project love, natural order, and har mony. These aspects influence Christians to develop attitudes, which promote the teachings of Jesus Christ. Respect for human life eliminates all manner of evils that a person would be intending to do to the other fellow. Christian doctrines define life and penalty of sin as death with a meaning that the whole idea behind Christianity is life5. Human life is precious or valuable above all other things. The giver of life is thus creature above ot

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Nicodemus and samaritan woman Essay Example for Free

Nicodemus and samaritan woman Essay Nicodemus and samaritan woman BY wtxY16 Summarize, explain and compare the meeting of Jesus with Nicodemus in John chapter 3 with his meeting with the woman at the well in John chapter 4. Introduction In the fourth gospel John we are told about when Jesus has two encounters with two completely different people and he talks to them about God and himself. He teaches them about spiritual water and how he is the messiah. Im going to talk about these two meetings and compare them with one another to see the differences and the imilarities between the two. Jesus and Nicodemus, The meeting with Jesus and Nicodemus is a very interesting one to say the least because Nicodemus is seen to be a very high up Jewish leader, Nicodemus was a member of a very important Jewish group known as the Sanhedrin which is like a council but for Jews Oewish council). The Sanhedrin was in fact in the end of Jesuss life was actually responsible for Jesuss death, which makes it kind of ironic because Jesus is a Jew. Nicodemus wanted to speak to Jesus in private so they rranged a visit in the dark which instantly shows us that Nicodemus doesnt want to be seen with Jesus because he is a member of the Sanhedrin, its as if he is hiding something or frightened about what people will thin if they see him talking to Jesus. The fact Nicodemus goes to Jesus at night makes him a very interesting person as it makes us question why he sees Jesus at night and not in the day its as if he doesnt have faith in Jesus or believes he is better than everyone else and has a higher knowledge of faith because Nicodemus was a teacher of the Jewish law so is an cademic therefore he can not be seen by others talking to Jesus as he has a higher authority. Jesus said to Nicodemus that he was born again which Nicodemus misunderstood because he is thinking with the mind because he is an academic he isnt thinking with the spirit or the heart, which is what Jesus is implying and trying to get across. The talk ends with Nicodemus leaving in the darkness of the night not understanding who Jesus really is because his academic view cant grasp the hidden meaning that Jesus is portraying. Jesus and the Samaritan woman at the well. Jesus was sat by a well on a hot day this Samaritan woman came to get some water out of the well, which is weird because no one gets water at the hottest point of the day it suggests that she is lonely or an outcast a sinner. Jesus asked the woman for a drink but she wouldnt give him a drink because Jesus was a Jew and she was a Samaritan. They hate each other. Jesus offered another kind of water to the woman this time it was spiritual water and she said give me that water so I wont go thirsty. Jesus reveals what the woman nas done wrong she has had five husbands and for this the other Samaritans do not accept her and she has become isolated because of this. This sows us that she is not a very religious person as she has sinned many times and she know what her sins are which makes her interesting as she becomes a changed woman as Jesus changes her by providing her with spiritual water which makes her realize actually who Jesus really is. Jesus said I am he the messiah. The woman runs off to get other people to see the messiah. The woman is important as it shows us how even though she has committed many sins and has done wrong she is looking for forgiveness and she finds it threw Jesus who shows her the way. Jesuss meeting with Nicodemus and the Samaritan woman are quite different but shows us how the people who know they are good dont always find the answer its the people who lack the faith and believe and dont believe they are good who find the answer. This is shown clearly between the two Nicodemus and the woman because Nicodemus who is part of the Sanhedrin is a very intelligent guy and knows hat he is, doesnt get his life changed by Jesus because he is thinking with the mind not spiritually because he is intelligent, whereas as the woman has committed many sins in her life and is seeking forgiveness and doesnt know she is good. Even though she hasnt done what god asked and has sinned she is the one that understands out of the two who Jesus really is. You wouldnt expect that from a sinner which make it interesting. The Samaritan woman speaks to Jesus in the light at the hottest time of day its as if she knows what she has done and is a wear other people know and herefore she has got nothing to hide whereas Nicodemus talks to Jesus in the Night in the Darkness which suggests there is something we dont know about him, like he is hiding something a truth he doesnt want us to know. Even though he is more religious than the Samaritan woman. The Samaritan womans life is instantly changed but Nicodemuss isnt in fact we dont know if he ever did change. The woman is open in life and is a waiting the messiah to cleanse her whereas Nicodemus is more reserved and thinks he knows it all he comes across as arrogant.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Prospects and growth of the fast food industry

Prospects and growth of the fast food industry Tackling the blow of recession has not been easy for any industry. Its Attack was so strong that no industry has been able to save itself from its effects. If the hospitality industry is a measure of the wealthy and the rich peoples pockets then the news is very bad indeed. Many restaurants have went to the wall in the final quarter of 2008.The restaurants have been fighting with the reduction of corporate entertaining and the disposable income squeeze of consumers as well. Not only the restaurants and the hotels, but the pub industry has also been stroked by a number of factors over the past one decade and recession has put pressure on an already difficult trading environment. In the words of a renowned chef Dawn Sweeny, Creativity has always been a hallmark of professional chefs So to survive the blow of recession and to manage this situation a Lot of established chefs are getting in to street vending of their creations more efficiently to people who could only dream in their mortar and brick buildings. Low overheads, low labour costs and mostly cash based business is win- win situation for many. These mobile kitchen vans are saving these brand names from dying. The big brand names are selling their franchises to the people who want to earn a good amount of money by investing at one time. These vans have everything you need in the kitchen including all kinds of appliances and raw material. This food is comparatively cheaper as the mobile kitchen cuts down on the over heads and the labour costs. Street food is becoming a way to indulge pre-recession tastes on post-recession budgets At the same time recession in the US food industry has creating the new opportunity for the food sector in the US. In the recently released research report by RNCOS on US Fast food market outlook 2010even though there is gloomy economic condition in US, the fast food industry in US is growing rapidly because of inexpensive fast food and increasing number of working population. According to the report fast food market is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years and will cross the US$170 billion by the end of 2010. Because of economic downturn people has reduced their expenses of going for dinner in the restaurant and fast food for the launch. Instead of going in the restaurant they have started buying the food from street food vans which cost them less as compared to the restaurant food and they can save that much money in this recession time. This trend is becoming more common in the urban areas where the demand of pre-packed food and readymade food has increased because of the f ast life of their people. This has become now new trend there because American people wants want to have food which can provide instant energy without wasting more time and they can also afford that. The new trend of franchising the existing brands to the mobile carts is look refreshing and a new concept in the States. Through the research will able to judge that will this trend will continue even after the period of recession? Street food is becoming very famous in the United States and till the date only small-scale outlets are driving the trend, but now large food maker have also started to enter the market to get on board with this new trend. The market research organizations Culinary Trend Mapping Report from the Centre for Culinary Development (CCD) examined the booming street food trend, which has seen Americans reaching for a variety of convenient, portable and affordable foods, often with globally inspired flavours and eco-friendly preparation ( In the recent time street food has become very popular due to a confluence of larger social trends, mainly because of the economic downturn and the corresponding need for more affordable foods, growing snacking habits, greater interest in ethnic flavours and in local, sustainable foods. 1.2 Purpose This research attempts to contribute to the study of the current prospects and growth of the fast food industry on the wheel. The Food trucks in the NYC and other mobile food carts started by famous restaurants have been introduced. This research aims to find out what was the effect of recession on the food industry and how has it affected the consumer behaviour in this regard. The eating habits and the change in the actual income have affected the behaviour of the consumers and hence their frequency of dining out and their expenditure on food has been affected. So this research will throw light on this change as well. With the intention of exploring the possibility of the Food trucks endorsed by the restaurants that have seen a reduction in the number of customers due to recession, we will also study how these trucks are working and how do they cater to the needs of the people in the current situation. Whether the management and the way they are operating is different and how simila r their ways of operations are. In addition this research will study the advantages of the mobile food carts and if they can be a competition to the conventional style of dining and eating out. Or if these food trucks can add to the brand name of the existing restaurants and chains that have otherwise seen a decline in their business. 1.3 Development and structure of the research This research paper was developed in five steps 1. Define research aim topic Discussion with supervisor and explore possible interests within designated discipline. 2. Gather relevant literatures Begin investigation in existing literature to discover possible gap between academic research and reality. 3. Develop research structure Construct content of study and plan accordingly. 4. Collect the data and Data analysis Collect all required data from different secondary sources. Clear presentation of data in logical sequential arrangement and examine Validity of collected information 5. Develop conclusion from finding Present conclusion of this research and provide recommendation for further research CHAPTER- 2 Literature Review 2.1 Overview The chapter first begin by introduction of Food market in the USA and effects of recession on food market of USA then followed by the restaurant and fast food business in USA. Next consumers behaviour is discussed with respect to spending on the food. In the last section of this chapter significance of the mobile food van and its impact on the competition is discussed with respect to USA. 2.2 Restaurant and Fats food business in USA- Restaurant companies generally work to identify them self as customers retailers and not as a manufacturing meals. Restaurants are primarily retailers of two consumers product time and customers experience (Muller, 1999). People went to the restaurants and fast food providers to save their time from making the food and to get satisfaction of their needs. Restaurant is vast business in USA where consumers are less concerned about the where meal is prepared, they only concerned about the how the food is delivered and how they feel after meal is completed. While the fast food service is totally different they always concerned about building consumer loyalty and market awareness. There is vast difference between restaurant business and fast food service providers. Stalk and Hout (1990) described future economic competition as being based on a companys responsiveness to the time needs of its customer base. Currently, the restaurant industry accounts for four percent of the U.S. gross dome stic product and is the nations second largest employer next to the Federal government (Dumagan and Hackett, 1995). In USA restaurant holders are paying more attention to the growing trend in the eating habits of the people. According to the report of the NRI 2001 they have noticed seventy five percent increases in the restaurant customers as compared to 2001 in 2003. Even the rise of the convenience food in last 10 years can be seen by the growth of the fast food chain in the United States. The main reason behind the increase demand of fast food is these meals are ready to eat on the go and ability to hold these food in hands and to eat according to the consumers freedom. The main reason behind increased the growth of restaurant and fast food business is decreased in the food prices in the USA. Lakdawalla and Philipson (2002) attribute about 40% of the recent growth in weight to agricultural innovation that has lowered food prices Mainly technological change has made huge contribution in decreased price of the food price which eventually provides opportunity to the restaurant and fast food service provider to offer the food at cheaper rate and increased their business growth. The analysis draws on data from the Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) between 1971 and 1974, the BLS food price in real terms increased from 1.012 to 1.134, an increase of 12.04%, followed by a decrease of 11.02% between the years of 1974 and 1986, when it reached a low of 1.009. This is reflective of the behaviour of food prices in that period of time (Food prices, 2007). Due to decreased in the food prices percentage of people has decreased and expenditure on the food away from the home increased and increased in working class people is also another reason for growth of the restaurant and fast food business. According to the survey data of the county business pattern number of restaurant provides full services increased to 213550 in 200 6 from 193024 in 1998 and restaurant which not provide service like cafeteria and bar increased to 204311 in 2006 from 172695 in 1998. Data from the Census of Retail Trade highlight the steady increase in the number of full service and fast-food restaurants since the early 1970s; between 1972 and 1997, the number of restaurants per 10,000 population increased 61% from 884 to 1427 (Chou et al., 2004; Rashad et al., 2006). In the rapid development of the restaurant and fast food business taking fist mover advantage through franchise has played very important role. The main of using franchise is to assemble resources making long chain and to get first mover advantage (Micheal, 2003). By giving franchise restaurant and fast food business try to create a premium on rapid expansion of geographic areas. In USA strategy adopted by restaurant and fast food business owner to expanding units rapidly through franchising has created superior outlet share which eventually lead them to have high market share and profitability. Therefore, franchising is one method of securing first mover advantage (Micheal, 2003). Franchising overcomes the moral hazard problem associated with the operation of a chain of dispersed units (Caves and Murphy, 1976; Rubin, 1978; Brickley and Dark, 1987). McDonalds, a famous fast food supplier, opened its first franchised restaurant in the US in 1955. Now it has become a phenomenally succe ssful enterprise in terms of financial growth, brand-name recognition, and worldwide expansion by using franchise concept aggressively. Currently fast food franchise in the United States generates income of more than $125 billion per year. According to latest numbers there are over 2000 fast food franchise in USA and more than 5,00,000 franchisor operated outlets in USA. McDonalds, KFC, Pizza Hut and Subway are among the more popular fast food franchises worldwide that rake in millions of dollars per year in profits. During the last four decade fast food industry has grown very speedily in American society. An industry that starts in south California has spread in every corner of the USA. Fast food is served not only at restaurants but also at stadium, airplanes, school and college in every part of the USA and it has brought the rapid change in the USA economy (Schlosser, 1998). Fast food business has overcome the restaurant business in last few years in USA and it has benefited from the demographic change, supplying the food at cheaper price and hiring people at lower rate of wage. One of the ironies of Americas fast-food industry is that a business so dedicated to conformity was founded by iconoclasts and self-made men, by entrepreneurs willing to defy conventional opinion (Schlosser, 1998). Now fast food has become the operating system of the todays service industry in USA and it has created millions of job opportunity for the people in the country   when the other businesses have been firing the workers. 2.3 Food Industry and the Recession The Recession hits all parts of the food system, from the producer to the processor; from the grocer to the diner! (Mary Turck) Recent sales of the U. S. eating and drinking place industry have been lacklustre. It is difficult to pinpoint the exact reasons for this sluggishness, but the recent U. S. recession as well as 1986 modifications to U. S. tax law has to be considered factors (Stephen J.Hiemstra). This study aimed at finding out the factors related to the decline in the demand for the food service lately and to bring out the extent to which the eating and drinking place industry sales were declining due to this lack of demand. As it was difficult to pinpoint any single factor. Findings indicated that the decline in demand could be majorly explained by changes in prices, decrease in the income, and the drop in deductibility of restaurant food as a business expense. The economic recession has hit the food industry as much as any other industry in the international market. Food being the prime necessity cannot be avoided and hence is a bigger pain for the consumer whose income has decreased due to the economic downturn. The rising petroleum prices have affected the cost of transportation for the seeds and the grains and have hence added to the cost of production making the food expensive for the ultimate consumer. The food prices have gone up with the increasing dairy and grain prices entering in to the year 2007.By the end of 2009 the economists announced the rising unemployment. As a result Restaurants were also hit as hard as any other industry as the consumer stopped dining out and spending on food as compared to earlier. Hence the cost of living was cut on the cost of eating and dining out. Nearly two third of the restaurant operators reported a decline in their business in the end of 2008 as compared to the sales in the year 2007 (National Restaurant Association). Golden Gate Restaurant Associations (GGRA) presented a study of the economics of the San Francisco Restaurant industry looking at the conditions of the food industry in the recession in the year 2002 and 2003.According to the reports the hotel occupancy in San Francisco was dropped by 20% and the average daily room rates came down by 16%.The city lost 80,000 jobs nearly 14% of the total city employment (Kent Sims). However with time, the economy of San Francisco has improved with respect to the conditions in 2002-03. But there are areas where it remains well below the level where it was in 2000. Over all the economy is smaller than what it was before recession. Hotel occupancy in 2004 was 4% above its low point in 2002, but still 20% lower than in 2000. In 2005, the city driven US restaurants recovering from the recession in 2004 confronted the fact their customers were back again and their sales were back, but the profits did not come back. As the operating costs have raised at a greater pace than the gross margin on sales, despite the higher menu prices. According to a confidential survey conducted by GGRA (2006) the results mainly pointed out that half of the people considered San Francisco and other cities in the USA as the major culinary centre and half of the population also said that the stature of such cities as culinary centre is either diminishing or marking time. Business at traditional business-lunch spots, including the Capital Grille, Mortons, and McCormick Schmicks, is down dramatically this was reported by Chicago tribune in 2008. These researches have shown that Recession is a hard time for food industry as well as more and more people are finding it tough to stay in one job and they want to change their job and add to their income. But even in Recession the people cant avoid food so they started looking for cheaper options and the food industry tackled this by cutting out the middle man. This gave rise to the trend of fast food and the US fast food market started to rise. As people has started looking for less expensive. The Consumer expenditure on fast food rose sharply in these years, accounting for around 30% of total restaurant industry sales in 2008. With the busy life style, cost advantage and increasing demand of convenience food, the total fast food industry in the US is expected to grow at a CAGR of nearly 5% till 2010.(US fast food market outlook 2010, PR log press release). From the past few recent years McDonalds, Burger King, and other fast food restaurants have been scooping up the customers. B oth of the big burger chains are taking market share from competitors with higher price points, building on reputations for low prices and revamped dollar menus (Mary Turck). The Recession has brought about a trend in the menu cycle of the food industry as well.( Stages of the Industry Life Cycle (1919-1988) H.G Parsal). The preferences have changed from the formal full course dinners to quick food which is better known as the fast food. There has been a growth in the fast food business in after the recession (Industry research journal). In the phase of recession, fast food sales in US have increased. This is due to the fact that fast food in the country is comparatively inexpensive than the traditional food and thus, more and more people are shifting to fast food in this economic crisis. Also, hamburger and the Rools are one of the most preferred food items in the country. This represents the growth of around 5% in 2009 over 2008, and the same trend is expected to be seen in the coming years also. 2.4 Consumer Behaviour in USA food industry- Consumer behaviour is very important to know in any business to make it successful. Its very important to take proper care of the issue like consumers like dislike their health issue and consumer satisfaction. Consumer behaviour potentially deals with all of the ways people may act in their role as consumers (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1991) and it also include to focus on behaviour related to searching, buying and using product and service in the market. Generally restaurant and fast food business providers divide consumers in the groups based on the geographic characteristics, common attitudes, and behaviour so that they can provide better services to them. Food industry is closely concerned with food choice and quality, but at the same time has long been considered to offer a rich meal experience to which many other factors contribute (Campbell-Smith, 1967). Every customer has different perspective to rate the service of the restaurant and fast food service. Customers rate the service o n the basis of the food quality, service quality, ambience of the place, price of the food and facility provided by the restaurant and fast food providers like free home delivery. Becker-Suttle et al. (1994) and Williams et al. (1997), respectively, identify the dining preferences of older customers, and the factors that inhibit this group from using full service restaurants. Consumers behaviour is more important in service industry as if customers are not happy with the happy than it will become very difficult to sustain in the competition. In the development of the restaurant and fast food business globalisation has played very major role with respect to food supplies, food habits, and population health and food consumption behaviour. In this fast developing world consumers have adopted to save time and get job done in time. Changes in working and social life of the people have played very important part in the very high growth of the food industry in USA. In social context, gradually the numbers of families where both parents are working are increasing worldwide (Stamoulis, Kostas G. et al., 2004). Due to busy schedule of the people they are getting less time to make food and eat at home so they are diverted to the restaurant and fast food more in the recent years. In recent years the living standard of the people of USA has also changed before few years they used to take dinner together with the family on the dining table now most of the family likes to sit against the TV and watching programme. Number of gathering p rogrammes like birthday parties, anniversary parties has increased in last few years and people tend to arranged these parties in restaurants instead of at home which has also increased the demand of restaurant food in USA. This new trend has provide opportunities to the restaurant and fast food service business to offer varieties of the services to the people and which attracts more people to come to their place for the dinner and launch. Increase in earning of the people has also contributed to the rapid development of the restaurant and fast food industry in USA. According to the research data Americans spent about $6 billion on fast food in 1970, they spent more than $110 billion in 2000. Americans now spend more money on fast food and restaurant instead on higher education and new cars. National restaurant association has reported that Americans are buying 5.8 times average per week form a restaurant and per person spending on restaurant food is $1078. Now a days consumers are giving more importance to the quality of the food with respect to the health safety. Henson and Traill define food safety as the inverse of food risk-the probability of not suffering some hazard from consuming a specific food (Henson Traill, 1993). Consumers attitude towards food safety and practice related to it is more important for the restaurant and fast food service providers to take into consideration. Even government of USA has also formed very strict regulation and food policy which is necessary for the restaurant and fast food providers to follow. In May 1997, US President Clinton launched a National Food Safety initiative to enhance surveillance, improve risk assessment, inspection and compliance, educate the consumer and conduct important new research (Tent, 1999). Food quality awareness has made more responsible to the restaurant and fast food business towards peoples health issue and which has benefited them as they are offering low calorie food to the people. Mc Donald has already implemented its strategy for the consumer preference since last many years. McDonalds has pursued two strategies since 2003. To keep up with rapidly changing consumer preferences, demographics, and spending patterns, McDonalds has introduced new items Premium Chicken sandwiches and the Angus Beef Burger and also doing campaigns to create more healthy foods like Premium Salads in USA. The strategy reflects the philosophy that novelty, as opposed to loyalty to traditional products, is the key determinant of sales in the fast food industry . In the recent years consumers have started to give more importance to the nutrition food and salads due to awareness of their health and increasing obesity. The growing epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Currently 15% of US youth are overweight, a prevalence nearly twice as high in children and three times as high in adolescents compared to 1980 prevalence rates (Rockville, 2001).In U SA size of the family has also played major role in development of the restaurant and fast food service and specially Hispanic American families. Hispanic purchasing power has influenced the marketplace. Hispanic shoppers spend more on food purchases because their families are usually larger. So consumer behaviour and consumer preference has played very vital role in the rapid growth of the fast food and restaurant business in the USA and they also got support from the economic development of the USA also. Mobile food service: Dabbawalas in India to Food trucks in NYC The origin of the Dabbawalas lunch delivery service dates back to the 1890s during the British Empire in India. Various people migrated from different parts of the India for work. Due to lack of canteens, the working class used to stay without eating lunch if they forgot to get it from their houses.. Invariably, lunch would not be ready when they left home for work. The taste of different communities was different; this could only be satisfied by a home cooked food. Recognizing the need, Mahadeo Havaji Bacche (Mahadeo), a migrant from North Maharashtra, 10 started the lunch delivery service. (Paul S Goodman ,2003) This service started with around 100 dabbawalas (workers) and cost the client INR 2 per month. There are around 5,000 dabbawalas in Mumbai today delivering around 200,000 Tiffin-boxes amounting to 400,000 transactions every day first delivering the Tiffin boxes and then delivering the empty boxes back home. (The Economic times 2008)Here nobody is an employer and none are employees. Each dabbawala considers himself a shareholder and entrepreneur .The entire system depends on teamwork and meticulous timing. Tiffin boxes are collected from homes between 7.00 am and 9.00 am, Various tiffin services also provide the service of cooked food and not just the transportation of the boxes. After the collection, these boxes are taken to the nearest railway station. various intermediary stations, they are hauled onto platforms and sorted out for area-wise distribution, so that a single Tiffin could change hands three to four times in the course of its daily journey..( Pradeep Thakkar,2005). Even in the economic crisis, Dabbawalas have been serving and are providing a necessary and recession-proof service as even in the tough economic times, people will always need lunch the dabbawalas are a cooperative that can boast a business record of reliability that would have any operation salivating with envy.(Dean Irvine,nov 2008)In the year 2008, Forbes gave the six sigma efficiency title to these dabbawalas. This six sigma rating the dabbawalas that was received by Forbes magazine precipitated a rush of interest from management supply companies and the various business schools searching for the secrets of its success. The rating means that these dabbawalas have a 99.9 percent efficiency rate.(Dean Irvine,2008)The concept of providing the food to their workplaces, without any need of going to the restaurants and wasting the time that can be otherwise saved for working is very suitable for the working class people of today. This is why these dabbawalas are serving well in the time of recession and people find it much better to get their food from them than going out and eating. The concept of mobile food service is not new to the countries outside India now. The Food trucks in the USA are the biggest example .The restaurant concept in the Country is going mobile! With the changing trends in the food and catering industry, the concept of moving food vans can be seen in the places like New York in the US.(Katherine Marginally., Dec 2009) Whether its because of the economy, cultural exchange, or plain demand, street food is making its culinary mark (International Chefs congress) A young chef Josh Ozersky calls these food trucks as one of the most definitive moments of this generation. Its not a fad like pet rocks or hundred dollar burgers. Its a great way for young chefs to get into the business without having a wealthy backer. Recently the savvy entrepreneurs and the chefs are getting to the streets with their culinary training and experience. This is partially fuelled by recession and a changing trend which is more inclined towards casual dining. The chefs have found more adventure and satisfaction in Global Street food in respect to the factors, cuisine as well as the concept. The new wave of mobile food vans are proving that you dont need a brick and mortar place for producing and providing high quality and high concept food for people. Lunch trucks also called as food trucks are mobile food courts which sell food items at different locations. They reap more benefits than the restaurants which are stationary as they have very limited number of customer base which provides limited amount of revenue. They can also be called as restaurant on wheels. There are different lunch trucks available in the markets which are specifically targeted to cater to the needs of different varieties of food items. From the daily breakfast to the dinner, desserts to juices you have wide variety to choose from.(Yew Chin) These trucks have more variety than any other stationary cafe or restaurant. From coffee to puddings, waffles to rolls and Indian curries to Arabic Falafel. They have it all. There are Coffee trucks, Snacks trucks, Dessert Trucks, Chinese food trucks and proper restaurant trucks that have a kitchen inside and have the same menu as in any other restaurant be in Indian or Italian. The cost of operating an established restaurant often handcuffs ones ability to go outside the box due to dà ©cor and tabletop package expense, high-end equipment in the kitchen that must be paid down and, in my case, our reputation as a classic historic inn which has a presumed menu style that pays the bills. The guerrilla trucks can much more easily think out of the box, since they are often serving out of a cardboard box.(Patrick Byrne,2009) Known for their profits, when compared with the stationary restaurants, these trucks have shown greater profit and a very good customer base. They provide the custome rs with good quality of food that they can afford. In return they get a loyal customer following in different locations that they plan to go around. As they move from one place to other, they have this opportunity to serve more people and with different menu options. There are plenty of hurdles that are faced by these food trucks owner along with the profits.The Initial investment consists of the vehicle followed by the Kitchen and the appliances and accessories used there in. These vans also require a Mobile food service license from the government before they can start their business. There are issues of permissions which vary from city to city and mostly in cities like New York and Manhattan allowing these food vans is not difficult.(Emilly Bell ,Dec 2009)However these rest on wheels should pay attention to providing the food on proper health standards and conditions.(Patrick Byrne,2009) The pedestrian snackers on the streets of Manhattan and Brooklyn are accustomed to mobile eateries, but these new gourmet food trucks take the street-food game to a higher level. Unlike dirty-water dog stands, which often stick to the same corner, these meals on wheels have the freedom of mobility, websites tracking their whereabouts, PR representation and specialized offerings such as restaurant-quality desserts, tacos and waffles. So just like the previously mentioned Dabbawalas of India Food trucks in the USA are popular among the people who want to save on their time and money. Because the obvious reason for the preference of these trucks by the consumers over the stationary restaurants is the low cost food that has the same quality and the ease of getting the food on the go. Also according to George Ebinger, (International House of pancakes), It is unfair to its grossly unfair to allow trucks in close proximity to established businesses trying to make it in this economy. You can t compete with a truck when it comes to pricing and service And for the Owners The obvious appeal of bringing your food into a truck or cart is the low overhead-theres no rent, no getting a restaurant up to code, no large staff to pay. With the economic downturn, restaurateurs have struggled to find funding to open full-scale restaurants, said Tom Forte, an analyst at Telsey Advisory Group in New York City.(Laura Isenzee ,2009) Jerome Chang of New Yorks Dessert Truck says that financially we

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Can the EU Serve as an Integration Model for ASEAN?

Can the EU Serve as an Integration Model for ASEAN? The age old saying of â€Å"there’s more than one way to skin a cat† has served as a clichà ©d phrase to adequately illustrate and paint the canvas of the archetypal process, exemplar standard or the perfect specimen isn’t the only path to success. This expression has been applicable as life advice, in competitive sports, career choices, as well as habitual daily-life in achieving greatness, the idiom has also lent to International Relations. Cooperation at any level is considered an achievement in all respectful fields; the ability to set aside differences, identify commonality for a purpose and the overlapping determination in reaching that ambition. The success of cooperating in International Relations takes the form of nation states coming together in alliance on the basis of commonality towards an ambitious goal, furthering into nation states in regions linking arms in pursuit for a collective objective. This profound bond is the grouping of nation states i n a region exuding behaviors as a collective who understand differences, identify common interests and strive towards a unified goal. The examples of regionalization would be of the European Union, the EU, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN. While the two regional groupings have been known to be successful, the level of integration between the two differ quite considerably. The EU’s level of integration furthers ASEAN by many folds; the ability to integrate not only areas for free trade, but the unification of the market, currency, common passport, a customs union and a commonality in foreign policy as a region all through a common institution. The overwhelming success of the European Union dwarfs that of ASEAN where the Asian counterpart has only been able to achieve integration regionally through free trade and economic movement. The difference in level of integration begs the question of whether the EU model has the ability to befit that of ASEAN and p rovide guidelines and prove to be exemplar in regional integration. To begin whether the EU model is capable of providing as a structural guideline for ASEAN, we inspect the circumstances of the purpose each integration from its origins, and examine the validity of the two then systematically determine whether the EU model is capable of befitting that of ASEAN to achieve paralleling success in the East. The integration of the European Union is herald as the greatest union of nation states in a region, highest achievement in integration of a common currency, customs union, single market, common passport and foreign policy under a common institution. The ability for the members to share sovereignty and surrender to a collective long-term goal of a regional cooperation above domestic interests creates a supportive environment in channeling political will. The European Union marked the pioneer for regional integration which exhibited a collective ideology of a ‘community approach’ rather than the traditional balance of power mode accrediting Robert Schuman of France and Konrad Andenauer of Germany. The collective to channel political will led to the construction of a legally binding common institution which oversaw the integration project. This Western model empowered the consensus approach with a pronged initiative of solidarity and tolerance by not isolating any member regarding major domestic issues of a banking crisis resulting in an increase in public debt. Greece represents the first test to the European Union’s Single currency resulting in a great increase in both public debt and deficit. The consensus approach meant that Union were hesitant in decision-makings as well as implementing policies until the vast majority of member states were pursued to collectively pursue and implement such policies. The process of proposals passed through the Working Party, then to the Permanent Representatives Committee (Coreper) then finally a Council configuration secures that a proposal befits the interests of the entire Union. The willingness to provide significant financial transfer to help poorer members catch up with the collective norm meant that stronger members in the Union saw the importance of financial weaker nation states and placed collective will power above domestic interests but meant a lag and a pull back on financial capabilities for further advancements. Under the leadership of France and Germany meant that Paris and Berlin were the driving force behind the EU integration, and under this leadership can attribute to the success of the integration itself in the ability for the two countries to overlook historical differences between the two and step together for a success of a better tomorrow. The critical element that make regionalism successful in Europe in achieving the European Union was the ability to push aside differences; the capability in reconciling historical pasts. With historical reconciliation, especially between France and Germany with a turbulent historical past of the war of 1870, the First and Second World War. The reconciliation brought the cohesion that allowed for the development of relationship building and the necessary political will for cooperation and ultimately integration. The achievement through years of sustained political effort from leaders of both countries paved way that facilitated the mend of commonality towards sculpting a regional community. This is a reflection of the European Union’s ability and ‘community approach’ and through a common institution of the European Econmic Community formed a Free Trade Area, instill a Customs Union that led to a Single Market and Single Currency. The regional cooperation of economics wasn’t the limit as foreign policy overlapped amongst the members which allowed for a common passport. These aspects and byproducts through political will in achieving an ambitious common goal forged an atmosphere of peace, prosperity and security in the European environment. With an ambitious idea seen through to the very end can prove to solidify and validate the EU model of integration especially in its historical record of responding to crisis. The validity of cooperation is tested in the face of turmoil and with such response by the European Union model, this integration has proved time and time again that in crisis it has responded astoundingly, as well establish mechanisms that eliminate repeating failures. Crisis that brought leveraged adversity namely the failed plan for a European Community in 1954 led to the creation of the European Economic Community, the EEC, the empty chair crisis of 1965 led to the de facto acceptance of the Qualified Majority Voting reflecting the consensus approach, QMV, and its eventual acceptance resulting in the 1986 Single European Act. A currency crisis of the 1980s birthed to the European Monetary System and ultimately the Euro, and finally the demise of communism in Europe led to the establishment of a common forei gn and security policy paving way for the widest enlargement EU members into the Union’s integration. In retrospect, there were many requirements that had to be met for numerous nation states to come together in unison linked by interests. Requirements that places the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to the test in its own integration. The process of the European integration may have had the head start and set an example to other regions for the strive for regionalism but the European Union isn’t without flaws, flaws that once examined may unveil why the Western model is ill suited for ASEAN. The European Union has been the most developed model of regional integration, although historically through common institutions and the sharing of sovereignty for problem solving, recent crises haven’t been handled well. Shaken by an economic and financial crisis, and the lack of a timely and coherent response to the Eurozone crisis called into question the integrity of the union and increased doubts of the integration process altogether. The financial crisis revealed structural and institutional fault lines which led to a decline of the Western orientated world power into one that gave rise to Asia and its market power. Mechanisms in place that aimed to reverse or buffer the effects of the economic and financial crisis were economic adjustments or austerity measures but came off as threatening towards domestic affairs. The adjustments allowed for the fragility of political cohesion and stability; the Lisbon Treaty, also known as the Reform Treaty, that replaced the European Constitution. One of major changes of the Lisbon Treaty will be the new president of the European council with two and half year term which will replace the current presidency rotating between member states every six months. Although the Lisbon Treaty sought a reform that would restructure leadership, it paved way for a failure that would undermine the integrity of the shared collective that the European union herald greatly. The obstacle that the Lisbon Treaty faced was that Ireland placed the Lisbon Treaty on referendum, and the Irish public did not accept the Treaty and rejected its ratification. With this wave of doubt in the ratification, the Czech Senate voted for the Lisbon but lacked the signatory approval of the Czech president, without such proved his Euro-Skeptic attitudes towards it sand fueled a demonstration of the Czech public who shared disapproval of this Treaty. With this apparent failure convinced the interests to stray away from any further institutional changes, â€Å"More Europe, no more.† This example explores that a regional restricting that a shared collective no longer spreads the region evenly, the region’s interest has slowly diminished and national interests have overtaken decisions made in this Union. Evident of this change of heart is Germany’s shift in perception, as one of the strongest advocate and champ of integration, Germany leaned towards the skeptic camp as well as issuing public doubts of the Eurozone. The growing urgency rising from the problems of the European Union is that rapid integration without commensurate strengthening of political and economic institutions. The emerging gaps can allow for lessons to be learned by other regional groupings in terms of institutional capacity and necessary coordination in integration. The challenges that follows of the EU integration can be accredited to fiscal coordination, amidst a worsening of economic outlook the reform adjustments to cleanse the financial system with austerity measures led to fragility of economies of EU member states like Greece, Spain, Portugal and renewed speculation in the financial market.   The second challenge that the European Union faces is a long-standing identity crisis, the Eurozone with 16 members, European Union members allotting at 27 issues a high number heterogeneity.   The attachment of European capital to national sovereignty and its reluctance to give power to Brussels for decision making lends to a decrease in the willingness to share sovereignty. On a recent note, at the Copenhagen climate change conference in December 2009, the EU inability to collectively voice at the conference revealed the Union’s weakness as an international actor. The conclusion of the conference ended with the EU agreeing to a deal that leaders of the region agreed that â€Å"no deal would have been a better deal†, endorsing a deal with no legal bindings, and an informal setting of promises to curb emissions speaks volumes on EU being unable to assert itself at the most critical juncture on the world stage and stains the legacy of its integration and its ability to conform to differences and shared sovereignty in the region. If the deal wasn’t endorsed, it would have rallied a collective of voices who share the sentiment that such a deal would make no changes to the environment. The European Union in many of its successes poses numerous present-day challenges that undermine the achievements of this regional integration, its inability to respond to difficulties of a financial crisis and the burdening increase of doubt spreading throughout the region on the crumble of an aligned collective interest. The Asian counterpart to the European Union is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, also known as ASEAN. When foreign ministers from Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore came together to sign the Bangkok Declaration on August 8th, 1976 it established this newly founded association, in hopes to manage and contain intra-regional conflicts. The Association grew to ten members with the additional Singapore, Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. The goal extended to maintaining peace, and bringing stability in a community marred by war to ensure that each member is free to pursue domestic development in their respective nations. The success of ASEAN was the ability to house a community of nations whom were independent and sovereign with different historical pasts, multitudes in diversity of languages and beliefs and rarely any overlap of culture to peacefully co-exist. Aspects of diversifying historical pasts, and intra-regional conflicts didn’t hinder the forging of the association, the ten Southeast Asian nations were able to overcome suspicions of one another and set aside latent hostilities. ASEAN in its inception established a means of non-intervention and non-binding agreement, the inability to impose disciplines on any of its members. The approach to the ASEAN model is under the foundation of consultation and consensus which allows for a decision based on the majority before implementation. In attesting the ASEAN model, the process and approach to solving issues relies on the ‘ASEAN Way’ that reflects and respects cultural norms in Southeast Asia, â€Å"A working process or style that is informal and personal. Policymakers constantly utilize compromise consensus, and consultation in the informal decision-making process. Quiet diplomacy allows ASEAN leaders to communicate without bringing the discussions into the public view.† (Masilamni and Peterson) ASEAN did indeed progress but without flaws and missteps of their own, this Asian collective failed to resemble the progress of the EU with historical pasts unreconciled and still damaging relationships between Southeast Asian members. For example, the dispute of the Preah Vihear Temple located in Cambodia standing as a World Heritage site, struggled to resolve with Thailand. The historical site stands on Cambodian sovereignty but was under Thai occupation until Cambodia’s independence in 1954. The UN has granted that Thailand remove military personnel as the site rightfully belongs to Cambodia, this territorial dispute has sparks major clashes between the border of the neighboring Southeast Asian countries. One settled by the United Nations through the International Court of Justice but stands as contention between Cambodia and Thailand. Reconciliation hasn’t been an agenda between the two over a 900-year-old Hindu temple. Although there are territorial disputes, and misalignment in political institutions, ASEAN is by far the most advanced of cooperatives amongst the efforts to regional groupings, taking the EU not by emulation but by examples. The ability for ASEAN to adapt progress of the integration model of the EU into ASEAN applicable means plays homage to the ‘ASEAN way’ of doing things that are sometimes unorthodox and against the grain. An example of using the EU as an exemplar inspiration and not by example is regularly sending delegates to Brussels to seek ideas from the EU experience. In this admiration of inspiration of the ASEAN of the progress of the EU, displays elements that differ from the Asian Association to that of the European Union and how the Western model isn’t necessary applicable to befit the Asian. ASEAN establishes a strictly inter-governmental body, with no interest in or indication of relinquishing means to share sovereignty between the nation members, and additionally, for ASEAN to emulate the EU model would require the ASEAN members to prerequisite a certain set of requirements to progress into integration based the EU model. Requirements that predetermine that integration breeds mutual political will and shared beliefs in the success of the long-term goal of the high level of integration is historical reconciliation for ASEAN members. Reconciliation did not take place as the nations differed on many aspects for example†¦ Without such reconciliation, the necessary political will and shared belief towards a long-standing goal of integration on the merits of shared sovereignty diminished which led to the operations and leader of ASEAN to be one of inter-governmental rather than through a common institution. Although ASEAN has made innumerable declarations to emulate the European Union integration model, their words of rhetoric reflected in their actions as unmatched with their words. The present ASEAN development process poses a challenge to the traditional Anglo-Saxon capitalist models as it contested the reformed rules-based system of global governance. The pressure that the EU and the EU places on ASEAN members regarding labor, social environment, and human rights if seen through as a success in pressure assimilation, actually presents itself as a disadvantaging stage in the development of the Asian model if implemented as the model itself is far beyond Western pressures to curb issues. The ideology of ASEAN itself embodied the ‘ASEAN Way’, a means of consultation and consensus, similar to that of the EU model but in the Eastern agenda, practiced non-interference with non-binding agreements to accompany decisions made and policies to follow. The problem with an open-ended agreement meant no enforcement to curb behaviors and the inability to impose disciplines, essentially heavy-hearted words with empty actions to fulfill promises. ASEAN’s point of enlargement on taking new members in 1997 introduced members of Myanmar and Laos with the expectation to solve and contain regional problems with Myanmar at the time housed a closed economy with a military regime as leadership, economic crisis and cross-border pollution. The trifecta of expectations created the illusion of integration with the confidence between members but instead exhibited loose inter-governmental cooperation. Myanmar’s triple threat posed a threat to an initiating cooperative of its region members but ASEAN overlooked this threat and extended the membership regardless. â€Å"The incorporation of countries like Myanmar with its military regime and closed economy represented a new extreme in ASEAN’s diversity. This in itself would have tested the Association’s claim to deeper integration as ASEAN has not found a way to reconcile its breadth with its attempts to achieve a greater depth of integration† (Henderson 1999, 74-76). The ‘ASEAN Way’ became a means to avoid rather than solve issues and conflict, the complementing of informal operations and non-binding agreements imposed no tangible means of success and integration. The ASEAN Way in this examination doesn’t pose as a threat to the integration of its members but rather examined through a behavioral lens of informality in actions that isn’t present in the European Union attributes, the lack of formal operations and behaviors may ill-fit the EU model. The inceptions of the European Union juxtaposed with the later formation of ASEAN provides a historical overview on the ability in identifying commonalities and interests for the two groups of nations coming together as a collective. In their respective collectives, ASEAN and the EU share numerous elements that prove their successful integration, but having the EU being the ‘superior’ model lends the thought of the possibility to befit the Western model with the Eastern. With the two models explained and deciphered, we resume the suitability in befitting the EU model within the fixtures of the ASEAN structure. The two are known and documented as both eliciting economic integration and community building to both foster and maintain security as well as further economic development. The best description of ASEAN’s use of the existing EU model without imposition from the Union to befit guidelines would be â€Å"admiration, not emulation†, this pronounces volumes on the actions ASEAN have already undertaken from both the successes and failures of the European Union. The admiration and not emulation can be attributed to skepticisms especially with Brexit and the consequences of the post-event in addition to EU-style regional integration increases doubt on the validity of not the EU model but its emulated nature on ASEAN’s. ASEAN’s inability and latent behavior to reconcile historical past illustrates the initial step of ASEAN’s incapability in emulating the EU model. ASEAN has never been more unanimous on the need for greater integration, but the capacity to make the necessary domestic political and economic adjustments to implement the reforms that are necessary to achieve the goals and objectives of integration in uneven amongst the different ASEAN member states. The late former secretariat to ASEAN, Dr. Surin Pitsuwan, elaborated that the EU served as an inspiration for ASEAN but never a model. An inspiration to guide ASEAN rather than an imposed steer of how-to suggests a road heading to demise. Models in their generality suggest emulation but downplays learning, without learning it inhibits growth, change and innovation, emulation doesn’t produce lessons learned and nor does it generate dynamic innovators but rather passive mimics. ASEAN can adopt many aspects and successes of the European Union but merely as an inspiring element and not a full-fledged guide as the two entities differ in mannerisms, operations and behaviors in their procedures that hinder such transfer of mimicking. The ASEAN Way of operations is the mannerisms that prohibits such transfer of guidelines and procedural operations housed by the European Union, the Qualified Majority Vote suggests a similarity in the consensus approach but the backroom conferences secluded from the public by ASEAN members suggests differently. Emulation creates subjective benchmarks which allows for no feasible alternatives to the dominant model, in the case ASEAN and EU, the imposition of EU onto ASEAN breeds a form of Eurocentrism. The imposition by the EU regardless of validity of model strikes a force by the West onto Asia which romances dominance, although the European Union exhibits soft power with inclinations on intrinsic values, there are other means of assertion rather than projected imposition. The imposed force from the West, although in good intent to improve and expand markets in the East, presents itself as a dominant force by the West to ‘handle’ the East. This imposition and emulation of the EU model would have viewed as the West to overtake the East, and with the current rise of China, Asian nation states wish not to look beyond the Pacific for inspiration let alone a steer from elsewhere. The necessities that ASEAN must take in order to inspiringly succeed like the European Union and not simply emulate it would be to learn from the Union’s failures and adapting it to ASEAN in a manner than preserves inter-governmental operations as well promote unifying political will in attaining a long-term goal of sustained integration. An investment that ASEAN can consider follow in the footsteps of the Union would be placing national government’s interests of achieving long term goal of regional integration by all member states above domestic priorities. The push for integration should be one that synchronizes the public as well as the government that It is in their vital national interest to integrate. These elements ‘borrow’ the attributes that the European Union succeeds on and adapts it to the ASEAN model, this inspiration proves key points for ASEAN to improve in its own integration but suggests that the EU model needs improvement in order to be applied. The learning of the crisis in Europe that threatens the European Union fuels the need for ASEAN to take inspiration from the EU model rather than at total replicating. The merits of the European Union serve as inspiration for ASEAN integration and not as a total guideline for the Southeast Asian collective, the missteps and struggles of the EU model provides learning points for ASEAN to improve and implement, the successes of overcome historical differences between regional members provides reflection that differences in Southeast Asia are still prominent. The EU model holistically ill-fits the ASEAN model by the diversifying approach by the two collectives, the evolved formality of operations by each differ considerably and the approach to crisis cements that each deal with struggles in differently. The European Union still stands as the most successful regional collective to integrate upon a common goal, this Union presents itself as an exemplary model of both trials and tribulations of nations integrating, one that ASEAN views admirably and inspired. Success takes many forms and there is no single paved way to achieve it, the European Union represents one road to success and its success speaks volumes that outweigh their struggles that on the world stage provides lessons for inspired regions to integrate. As for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, it is adamant that ASEAN will make its own Way in achieving a high level of integration one that doesn’t mimic the EU model but mirrors in its success. Bibliography   The European Union as a Model for Regional Integration. Council on Foreign Relations. September 24, 2010. the EU be considered a model for ASEAN? East Asia Forum. August 05, 2017. Accessed January 02, 2018., Yeo Lay. 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